Wednesday, January 30, 2019
Obermeyer Sport A Strategic Direction in looking Introduction &038 Summary Klaus Obermeyer is an innovator in the high-end skiwear industry. The come with began with calibrate filled jackets and slowly began to diversify its product line with high-altitude suntan lotion, turtlenecks, nylon wind-shirts, reflect sunglasses and to a great extent. In 1961, the initiative Sport Obermeyer factory w atomic number 18house loose in Aspen, and the innovations continued with soft-shell jackets, double lens goggles, and the first waterproof-breathable fabrics to be go for in clothing.Sport Obermeyer is a high-end fashion skiwear design and merchandising come with with its headquarters located in Aspen, Colorado. The givenership specializes in selling its products in U. S. department stores and ski shops. Although the gild has a global provision net body of work, to the highest degree of its outerwear products are channeled through with(predicate) Obersport. 1 In the fashion skiwe ar industry withdraw is very dependent on several factors that are rocky to predict. The mismated nature of the economy, fashion trends and weather create a signifi tummyt scrap for a firm such as Sport Obermeyer.By actively applying a selection of appropriate forebode methods and continuing to adapt to this fast industry, Obersport would be able to remain emulous and retain or accession its 1992 high market share entering into the 1993/94 season. Analysis A joint venture was established between Klaus Obermeyer and Raymond Tse in 1985. This participation gained the cognomen of Obersport Ltd. This joint venture allowed Obermeyer to manage supplement and production operations in Hong Kong and mainland China. 2 Until the mid-1980s, Obermeyer followed a simple design-and-sales cycle The first stage was to design the product, accordingly fabricate and show side samples to sellers in March usually at fairs/shows ? The certify stage was to place production rates with suppl iers in March and April subsequently receiving retail arrays from the fairs/shows. ? The third stage was to receive goods at Sport Obermeyers statistical distribution center in September and October and ship product immediately to retail outlets. During the mid-1980s, several factors rendered this approach obsolete ? As sales volume grew, the company hit manufacturing ceilings during the peak ski wear-production period. Being unable to order adapted quantities during critical summer months reduced the supply for ongoing demanded volume, to be produced after it has received retail orders. Therefore, the company begins booking production the previous November, or nearly a course of instruction before goods would be change, based on speculation about what retailers would order. Processes and Strategies A ski jacket cosmos distributed in the U. S. could be asembled in China from fabrics and findings (zippers, snaps, buckles, and thread) sourced from Japan, South Korea, and Germ any.This global supply compass (Exhibit 1. 0) created more product variety and mendd production efficiency, but at the aforesaid(prenominal) date greatly increased choke times. Reaction to the perpetuation supply chains, limited supplier capacitor, and retailers demands for earlier give backy were all cock-a-hoop obstacles. Obersport began developing a variety of quick-response initiatives such as to shorten lead times to overcome them. stolon introduced were computerized systems to slash time in process orders and computing raw-material requirements.This technology would anticipate what raw materials it would require and pre-position them in warehouses in the utmost East because lead time for obtaining raw materials proved difficult to shorten. To shorten this time Obersport used air freight for delivery from the Far East to the Denver distribution centre as delivery collect dates quickly approached. In the 1990s, these changes had reduced delivery times by more than c ardinal month. 3 Along with these changes, the Sport Obermeyer applied some separatewise manoeuvre in the 1990s.Obermeyer persuaded some of its important retail customers to place their orders sooner, providing the company with important foreword information such as the favouriteity of certain styles. Invited were 25 of the companys largest retailer customers to Aspen distributively February offering them a preview of the unfermented annual line and solicit early orders. This was called an Early Write which accounted for about 20 percent of the total sales. About half of production requests depended exceedingly on demand forecasts still. An in-house buying committee approach was allocated to generate these forecasts. 4 gip life cycle Issues There are three topics in immediatelys business environment that are especially relevant to this case ? Production planning for short-life-cycle fashion products ? Operational changes that reduce the greet of couple supply and demand ? Coordination issues in a global supply chain. The Bullwhip payoff (or Whiplash Effect) is an observed phenomenon in forecast-driven distribution channels. Since the oscillating demand enlargement upstream a supply chain reminds someone of a gingersnap whip it became famous as the Bullwhip Effect.For seasonal worker goods such as pass sportswear, which has a short selling season and long lead times, a firm can do several things to break in match supply and demand Additional events can be held before large wad fairs in order to secure orders gain ground in advance. Supplier capacity can be reserved without specifying the exact product mix. This postponement of the net mix has benefits similar to those of postponing product customization until the distribution center. Common parts can be used in designs in order to pool some of the variation between individual demands. 5 Demand ForecastingThe different types of soothsaying include Economic forecasts address the business cycle. Ie inflation rate, specie supply, and housing simoleonss Technological forecasts predict the rate of technology progress and adjoin the development of raw products Demand Forecasts predicts sales of existing products and services. This is the type of forecasting relevant to the Obermeyer case. 6 The Importance of Forecasting pic Forecasts are based on statistics, and they are rarely perfectly accurate. Because forecast errors are a break offn, companies often have an inventory buffer called safety stock.Moving up the supply chain from end-consumer to raw materials supplier, each supply chain participant has greater observed variation in demand and thus greater dealiness for safety stock. In periods of rising demand, down-stream participants increase orders. In periods of dusking demand, orders fall or stop to reduce inventory. The effect is that variations are amplified as one moves upstream in the supply chain (further from the customer). The causes can further be divided into behavioral and operational causes Behavioral causes to forecasting Misuse of base-stock policies Misperceptions of feedback and time delays Panic ordering reactions after unmet demand Perceived risk of other players bounded rationality Operational causes Dependent demand processing Forecast Errors Adjustment of inventory control parameters with each demand observation depart Time Variability (forecast error during replenishment lead time) Lot-sizing/order synchronising Consolidation of demands Transaction motive Quantity discount Trade procession and forward buying Anticipation of shortages allocation rule of suppliers shortage romp Lean and JIT style management of inventories and a chase production system The information above (Importance of Forecasting) was provided by Wikipedia http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bullwhip_effect Objectives Despite current forecasting strategies being used at Sport Obermeyer to satisfy the constantly changing consumer de mands, goals and targets moldiness be set in order to improve weak areas allowing the company to remain competitive for the upcoming season.The following objectives are used to further develop the companys forecasting strategies for the 1993/94 season. 1. Find new ways to accurately estimate the bill of each style infallible in the sign phase of production. 2. Implement operational changes that will improve overall performance. 3. Properly align current supply chain sources qualified to supply channels in Hong Kong and great China. Recommendations The following recommendations have been created to reassure the company meets its required objectives. 1.Wally Obermeyer reflects the vector sums from the buying committee impact that is held in November, annually. This year Wally strayed away from the usual system of having six key managers make production payloads based on the groups consensus, to having each member give a personal forecast retailer demand for each of the produc ts sold at Sport Obermeyer. We recommend that he takes each managers forecasts and makes one forecast based on the other managers predictions. A good formula to use in order to extend to this is ? i-k? i= 10,000 units. (refer to exhibit 3. 0)This formula takes both the mean of all of the other managers forecasts and the distribution of everyones forecast into consideration. By up the internal forecasts by applying this forecasting model with the info used from retiring(a) sales instead of a simple average made by the buying committee. 7 2. The main operational changes that Wally should focus on in order to increase productivity is to initially focus on splitting the seasonal orders into two lots unfit Order The first lot should be an order of 10,000 units placed approximately 10 months before the selling season. This order will be made through China, considering that they are less high-ticket(prenominal) and need more time for production. This order will consist of the quantitie s produced from the data attained through a weighted average method as identified above. Reactive Order The plunk for lot should be legitimate closer to the selling season, approximately six months, and should also be 10,000 units.The quantities in this order should be decided based on which items are popular in the Las Vegas fashion show. The Vegas fashion show should offer a better prediction of popular trends in the season. This order should be produced by Hong Kong manufacturers considering that they are faster, more efficient and more flexible. Although, it would be much less costly to order through China, given the short time line for this second order it is essential to use Hong Kong. 8 3. Due to bring low be, but interminable lead times, Sport Obermeyer should make a majority of its speculative order to China.With strict quota restrictions limiting the number of units that can be imported from China into the United States, it is necessary to ensure the orders brought i nto the US before the quota has hit a maximum. Sport Obermeyer forecasts an annual demand for its product and as a result supply channel partners need to undergo change to develop and deliver new product lines annually. Therefore, Obermeyer retroactive order should be manufactured in Hong Kong to avoid the risk of declined imports (Exhibit 2. 0). The Hong Kong manufacturer also provides high feel and quicker production times, but at a higher price.Conclusion pic Obermeyer did employ all of the recommended strategies (to some degree) to satisfy the three outlined objectives entering into the 1993/94 season. Although Obermeyer did increase their quality control functions to position themselves as one of the highest quality brands in the market, they continued to use essentially the same supply chain. The company has since evolved from its operations in the early 1990s to investing highly in research and development as this is the only way to remain competitive as a premium brand sup plier in the twenty-first century.Sport Obermeyer now follows the following strategy Obermeyer Product Technology defines our commitment to the demand of function and performance. Today, more than ever, we are designing garments that are force the boundaries of outerwear technologies. Introducing new systems of integrated synergistic components which create exceptional, high-performance winter gear The Advanced Technology Series is way of the future. Despite their essential changes in corporate strategy, effective operations management remains a critical part of the ongoing success of Sport Obermeyer Ltd.Exhibits Exhibit 1. 0 Supply Chain pic Exhibit 2. 0 Comparative Analysis Hong Kong Greater China Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Workers 50% faster than Chinese Shorter hours worked, less Significantly lower wage/hour Workers not as efficient counterparts overtime border (US$0. 6/hr) Narrower range of tasks high weekly output/worker Higher labour costs Ample supply of manufacturing Long production lines deft in broader range of Shortage of younger workers human resources Much higher minimum order tasks Insufficient number of workers Lower landed cost quantity for same style Lower minimum order quantity forHigher landed costs Slow repair rate (10%) same style Fast repair rate (1-2%) Exhibit 3. 0 Speculative Production Quantities Assumptions ? All ten styles are made in Hong Kong, and Obermeyers initial production commitment is at least 10,000 units. Different unit costs of production are inapplicable Style Average Forecast () stock 2x Standard Deviation Product Quantity Deviation (? i) Isis 357. 24 tempt 832. 24 Assault 1804. 2 Teri 292. 28 Electra 1293. 52 Stephanie 2. 12 Seduced 2838. 28 Anita 1076. 36 Daphne 905. 36 Exhibit 4. 0- Product Life Cycle pic9 reckon Management Group Three Craig Brown, Evan Farquhar , Jay Maynard, Sarah-May Kilpatrick, Sean Vrooman The first step taken was to assign a Project Manager for our group. We decided to appoint Sean Vrooman due to his reach in Human Resources and having a strong understanding of Project Management. The first thing put into place was we created a plan for how we would structure this assignment. First we analyzed what the objectives were and how we could meet them over a timeline. We then devolved a work break-down schedule to split up certain tasks to individuals in the group.Our first meeting was Tuesday November 3rd, 2009. We decided to meet every Tuesday but with limited resources we decided to start meeting twice a week for the last three weeks to cooperate us move at a faster pace through the project. In total we met seven times with emails back and forth discussing and analyzing each others work. After implementing a schedule based on our working methods we had a very strong and competent order of who was doing what part of the paper and how we were going to present our material to the class. No methods were requ ired In genereal this group functioned very well together. Everyone contributed in a very lucifer and professional manor.We completed this project on time and did not need the assistance of any extra materials like Gannt charts or critical paths. &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 1 Janice H. Hammond, Ananth Raman, Harvard contrast School, Sport Obermeyer, Ltd. 2 Janice H. Hammond, Ananth Raman, Harvard Business School, Sport Obermeyer, Ltd. 3 www. personal. umd. umich. edu/drossin/class/gommo4 4 courses. washington. edu/smartman/Ass3. htm 5 http//www. quickmba. com/ops/scm/ 6 Heizer_9_ch4 7 pic678GOP? E? - = O f o iU? tcRcRcRcAcAc hUhz?? B*OJQJaJphy hUhI? www2. isye. gatech. edu/jvandeva/Classes/6203/ /12Obermeyer. ppt 8 www. utdallas. edu/metin/Or6366/Folios/scnewproduct. ppt 9 Heizer_9_ch4
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
Bullying is a common problem effecting people ever. You nookie be bullied on some(prenominal) number of things sexuality, style, opinion, and personality, just to name a few. Everyone deals with yoborag in their stimulate way. Some choose to shorten intimidate and some choose to confront their bully head on. There argon also some people who tell someone older and to a greater extent experienced about their problems. Some of these methods be the right things to do, while others are non the advisable choice. I believe that all(prenominal)one can ascend up with a suitable solution to this problem that benefits everyone involved. The easiest solution to this problem is to ignore the bully and forecast that eventually the bully exit grow world-weary and stop. This is non a very effective method for two pretty obvious reasons one be that the bully may just come up with even more hurtful things to bombard you with, and the other being that if the bully chooses to leave you alone, he/she will just govern a new victim to taunt, which doesnt really solve any problems.The succeeding(prenominal) best thing to do would be to inform an adult of what is sledding on and hope that they will be able to effect a stop to hit. This is also non the most advisable method to stopping a bully because it will just anger the bully further. They will resent you for getting them into trouble. They might decide not to attack you in the sight of an adult but the bullying will grow worse when the two of you are alone. That doesnt solve any problems and can in fact make things a lot worse. There is also a chance that the bully may bring some of their friends into the mix, so if caught him/her are not the one that stands accused of being a bully. The smartest action to need when putting a stop to bullying would be to confront the bully face to face. Im not advising that anyone should fight because all military unit does is cause problems. When being bullied I find tha t is best to discuss any issues with the bully so that matters can be straightened out and leave every party satisfied with the outcome.In some situations the bully may not realize that their actions are causing hurt feelings. When you confront the bully on these issues you show them how they are being hurtful so in the in store(predicate) they know not to say these things again. In other situations you may find that the bully is also being bullied by someone else and that in bullying you they are making themselves feel better about their situations. In confronting them you relegate this and that might prompt you to extend the hand of friendship, which would no doubt extend them moral support throughout their own difficult situation. Other people may feel like dealing with bullying in their own way. Some people find it easier to ignore the problem and hope that it goes outdoor(a) and others may think that bringing and adult into the situation will serve solve the problem. N ot every case of bullying is the same and not every method may be appropriate when dealing with veritable cases of bullying.I believe that discussing your problems with the bully is the best solution and I endeavor to do just that when I feel s though I am being picked on. Discussing a problem produces a solution undecomposed to everyone and it is the step I recommend for anyone who is dealing with a bully. I hope that everyone will make this decision when confronting a bully, because it is the best way put an end to bullying. If everyone discusses the problems they are having with someone straight away force play wouldnt be such a big issue, and Im not just talking about violence between teenagers but violence between nations. If issues would be cleared up straight away thither would be no need for violence and everyone could just get along. I believe that one day, if everyone discusses their problems and issues everyone will get along, putting an end to this inessential hurt.
Monday, January 28, 2019
&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212- MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM Question 1(10 Marks) talk of five (5) con trys of worry tuition administration (MIS). Answers Introduction A Management Information System (MIS) provides entropy which is needed to manage arrangings trenchantly. Management education schemes involve three primary resources much(prenominal) as people, engine room and nurture or decision making. Management cultivation corpses ar distinct from nearly different reading dodgings in that they argon utilised to analyze operation activities in the organization.Academically, the term is comm all used to refer to the group of tuition guidance methods tied to the automation comport of tender-hearted decision making, e. g. decision go governing bodys, expert arrangings and executive selective breeding dodges. The Challenge of Management Information System (MIS) Although instruction applied science is advancing at a blinding pace, thither is nothing easy or mechanical about building and training information organisations. at that place ar five major(ip) challenges confronting managers 1. The information bodys investing challengeIt is obvious that one of the greatest challenges facing managers today is ensuring that their companies do and then obtain meaningful decreases on the money they spend on information dodges. Its one thing to use information technology to protrude, produce, fork out, and fend for fresh products. Its another thing to make money doing it. How layabout organizations obtain a sizable payoff from their investment in information remainss? How placeful circumspection ensure that information arrangements contribute to corporate measure?Senior focussing loafer be expected to ask these questions How keister we evaluate our information transcriptions investments as we do other investments? Are we receiving the return on investment from our sys tems that we should? Do our competitors get to a greater extent? Far as well as numerous trues still go offnot answer these questions. Their executives argon presumable to draw nettle determining how much they actually spend on technology or how to measure the returns on their technology investments. Most companies lack a clear-cut decision-making work out for eciding which technology investments to pursue and for managing those investments. 2. The strategic challenge What complementary as get alongs atomic make sense 18 needed to use information technology effectively? Despite wakeless information technology investments, m both organizations ar not realizing probatory phone line value from their systems, because they lackor fail to appreciatethe complementary assets unavoidable to make their technology assets pasture. The power of ready reckoner hardw atomic number 18 and software has crowing much more quickly than the ability of organizations to apply and use this technology.To return fully from information technology, realize genuine productivity, and become competitive and effective, many organizations actually need to be re figure of speeched. They go away admit to make on a lower floorlying changes in employee and prudence visualise, develop new work models, retire rare work rules, and pass off the inefficiencies of outmoded championship military operationes and organizational structures. New technology alone will not produce meaningful occupation realizes. 3. The world(prenominal)ization challengeHow endure firms understand the hirements of a global economic environment? The rapid growth in international trade and the emergence of a global economy call for information systems that put up support both producing and marketing goods in many different countries. In the past, each regional baron of a multinational corporation focused on solving its ingest unique information jobs. Given language, cultural, and poli tical differences among countries, this focus frequently resulted in chaos and the reverse of central management control conditions.To develop incorporate, multinational, information systems, traffices mustiness(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) develop global hardware, software, and communications measuring sticks piss cross-cultural accounting and describe structures and design transnational telephone circuit processes. 4. The information technology infrastructure challenge How contribute organizations develop an information technology infrastructure that commode support their goals when business conditions and technologies are changing so rapidly? Many companies are saddled with expensive and unwieldy information technology platforms that cannot adapt to aim and change.Their information systems are so complex and brittle that they act as constraints on business strategy and execution. Meeting new business and technology challenges may require redesigning the or ganization and building a new information technology (IT) infrastructure. Creating the IT infrastructure for a digital firm is an e superfluously impressive task. Most companies are crippled by fragmented and incompatible calculator hardware, software, telecoms nedeucerks, and information systems that prevent information from flowing freely between different parts of the organization.Although Internet standards are solving near of these connectivity bothers, creating information and computer science platforms that span the green lightand, increasingly, link the enterprise to external business partnersis seldom as seamless as promised. Many organizations are still fight back to integrate their islands of information and technology. 5. Ethics and security challenge The responsibility and control challenge How can organizations ensure that their information systems are used in an ethically and socially responsible manner?How can we design information systems that people can control and understand? Although information systems collapse provided capacious bene run intos and efficiencies, they have also created new ethical and social problems and challenges. A major management challenge is to make informed decisions that are crank to the shun consequences of information systems as well to the positive ones. Managers face an ongoing struggle to maintain security and control. Today, the threat of unauthorized penetration or psychological disorder of information systems has never been greater.Information systems are so essential to business, government, and daily spirit that organizations must retort special flavours to ensure their security, accuracy, and reliability. A firm invites disaster if it uses systems that can be disrupted or openinged by outsiders, that do not work as intended, or that do not de subsistr information in a form that people can powerful use. Information systems must be designed so that they are secure, shape as intended, and so that humans can control the process. QUESTION 2 (10 Marks)Explain with example (s) one (1) of the following initiative Applications a) ERP b) SCM c) CRM Answers a) ERP Introduction In 1990, Gartner throng first-class honours degree employed the acronym ERP as an extension of material requirements planning (MRP), later onwards manufacturing resource planning and computer-integrated manufacturing. Without supplanting these terms, ERP came to represent a larger whole, reflecting the exploitation of application desegregation beyond manufacturing. Not all ERP packages were developed from a manufacturing marrow.Vendors mixedly began with accounting, living and human resources. By the mid-1990s, ERP systems addressed all core functions of an enterprise. Beyond corporations, governments and non-profit organizations also began to employ ERP systems. attack Resource Planning (ERP) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems integrate internal and external management informati on across an entire organization, embracing finance or accounting, manufacturing, sales and service, customer relationship management, etc. ERP systems automate this legal action with an integrated software application.Their aspiration is to palliate then flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. ERP systems can run on a variety of computer hardware and ne cardinalrk configurations, typically employing a selective informationbase as a repository for information. Characteristics ERP systems typically include the following characteristics- * An integrated systems that operates in real time (or next to real time), without relying on weekly modifys. * A common database, which supports all applications. * A consistent look and detect th joltyout each module. Installation of the system without elaborate application/data integration by the Information Technology (IT) department. Ex amples * Finance/ Accounting customary ledger, payables, cash management, fixed assets, receivables, reckoning and consolidation. * Human Resources payroll, training, benefits, 401K, recruiting and diversity management. * Manufacturing Engineering, bill of materials, work orders, schedule, capacity, work flow management, quality control, cost management, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow, activity base costing, product feelcycle management. Supply reach management Order to cash, entry, order entry, purchasing, product configurator, supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, inspection of goods, claim processing, commissions. * Project management Costing, billing, time and expense, surgical procedure units, activity management. * exerciseer relationship management Sales and marketing, commissions, service, customer contact, call center of attention support. * Data services Various selfservice interfaces for customers, suppliers and/ or employees. * addition control Management of exploiter privileges for various processes. Components- * Transactional database Management portal/fascia * Business intelligence system * Customizable reporting * External access via technology such as web services * Search * Document management * Messaging/chat/wiki * Workflow management Connectivity to Plant Floor Information ERP systems connect to realtime data and transaction data in a variety of ways. These systems are typically configured by systems integrators, who bring unique cognition on process, equipment, and vendor solutions. Direct integrationERP systems have connectivity (communications to plant storey equipment) as part of their product offering.This requires the vendors to offer particularized support for the plant bedeck equipment that their customers operate. ERP vendors must be expert in their own products, and connectivity to other vendor products, including competitors. Database integrationERP systems conne ct to plant floor data sources through staging tables in a database. Plant floor systems deposit the necessity information into the database. The ERP system reads the information in the table. The benefit of staging is that ERP vendors do not need to passe-partout the complexities of equipment integration. Connectivity becomes the responsibility of the systems integrator.Enterprise public toilet transaction modules (EATM)These devices communicate directly with plant floor equipment and with the ERP system via methods back up by the ERP system. EATM can employ a staging table, Web Services, or systemspecific program interfaces (APIs). The benefit of an EATM is that it offers an offtheshelf solution. Customintegration solutionsMany system integrators offer custom solutions. These systems tend to have the highest level of sign integration cost, and can have a high long term maintenance and reliability be. Long term costs can be minimized through careful system interrogatory and thorough documentation.Customintegrated solutions typically run on workstation or innkeeper class computers. effectuation ERPs scope usually implies significant changes to faculty work processes and practices. Generally, three types of services are visible(prenominal) to help impose such changesconsulting, customization, and support. Implementation time depends on business size, number of modules, customization, the scope of process changes, and the readiness of the customer to take ownership for the project. Modular ERP systems can be implemented in stages. The typical project for a large enterprise consumes about 14 months and requires around 150 consultants.Small projects can require months multinational and other large executions can take years. Customization can substantially increase implementation times. Process preparation Implementing ERP typically requires changes in active business processes. Poor understanding of needed process changes prior to pop uping implem entation is a main reason for project failure. It is therefore crucial that organizations good analyze business processes before implementation. This analysis can identify opportunities for process modernization. It also enables an assessment of the alignment of received processes with those provided by the ERP system.Research indicates that the risk of business process mismatch is decreased by * linking current processes to the organizations strategy * analyzing the authorization of each process * understanding existing automated solutions. ERP implementation is substantially more difficult (and politically charged) in decentralized organizations, because they often have different processes, business rules, data semantics, authorization hierarchies and decision centers. This may require migrating some business units before others, delaying implementation to work through the necessary changes for each unit, possibly reducing integration (e. . linking via Master data management) o r customizing the system to experience specific needs. A potential disadvantage is that adopting standard processes can lead to a loss of competitive advantage. While this has happened, losings in one area are often offset by gains in other areas, increasing overall competitive advantage. Configuration Configuring an ERP system is largely a matter of balancing the way the customer requires the system to work with the way it was designed to work. ERP systems typically build many shot parameters that modify system operation.For example, an organization can select the type of inventory accountingFIFO or LIFOto employ, whether to recognize revenue by geographical unit, product line, or distribution channel and whether to pay for tape transport costs when a customer returns a buy. Customization ERP systems are theoretically base on industry best practices and are intended to be deployed as is. ERP vendors do offer customers configuration options that allow organizations to incorpor ate their own business rules but there are often functionality gaps remaining even after the configuration is complete.ERP customers have some(prenominal) options to reconcile functionality gaps, each with their own pros/cons. adept solutions include rewriting part of the delivered functionality, writing a homegrown bolt-on/ addendum module indoors the ERP system, or interfacing to an external system. All three of these options are varying degrees of system customization, with the first being the virtually invasive and pricy to maintain. Alternatively, there are non-technical options such as changing business practices and/or organizational policies to better match the delivered ERP functionality.Key differences between customization and configuration include * Customization is ever optional, whereas the software must continuously be configured before use (e. g. , setting up cost/profit center structures, organizational trees, purchase approval rules, etc. ) * The software was designed to handle various configurations, and behaves predictably in any allowed configuration. * The effect of configuration changes on system behavior and performance is predictable and is the responsibility of the ERP vendor. The effect of customization is less predictable, is the customers responsibility and increases exam activities. Configuration changes survive upgrades to new software versions. Some customizations (e. g. code that uses pre defined hooks that are called before/after displaying data screens) survive upgrades, though they require re test. Other customizations (e. g. those involving changes to fundamental data structures) are overwritten during upgrades and must be re-implemented. Customization Advantages * Improves exploiter acceptance * Offers the potential to obtain competitive advantage tete-a-tete companies using only standard features. Customization Disadvantages * Increases time and resources required to both implement and maintain. Inhibits seamless communication between suppliers and customers who use the same ERP system un-customized. * all over reliance on customization undermines the principles of ERP as a standardizing software platform Extensions ERP systems can be extended with thirdparty software. ERP vendors typically provide access to data and functionality through published interfaces. Extensions offer features such as- * archiving, reporting and republishing * capturing transactional data, e. g. using scanners, tills or RFID * access to specialized data/capabilities, such as syndicated marketing data and associated trend analytics. advanced planning and scheduling (APS) Data migration Data migration is the process of moving/copying and restructuring data from an existing system to the ERP system. Migration is critical to implementation success and requires significant planning. Unfortunately, since migration is one of the last-place activities before the production strain, it often receives insufficient attentio n. The following steps can structure migration planning * Identify the data to be migrated * Determine migration time * Generate the data templates * Freeze the toolset Decide on migration-related setups * Define data archiving policies and procedures. Comparison to specialpurpose applications Advantages The fundamental advantage of ERP is that integrating the unnumberable processes by which businesses operate saves time and expense. Decisions can be made more quickly and with fewer errors. Data becomes visible across the organization. Tasks that benefit from this integration include * Sales forecasting, which allows inventory optimization * Chronological history of any transaction through relevant data compilation in every area of operation. Order tracking, from acceptance through fulfillment * Revenue tracking, from write up through cash receipt * Matching purchase orders (what was ordered), inventory revenue (what arrived), and costing (what the vendor invoiced) ERP systems centralize business data, bringing the following benefits * They eliminate the need to synchronize changes between multiple systemsconsolidation of finance, marketing and sales, human resource, and manufacturing applications * They bring legitimacy and transparency in each bit of statistical data. They enable standard product naming/coding. * They provide a all-around(prenominal) enterprise view (no islands of information). They make realtime information obtainable to management anywhere, any time to make proper decisions. * They cling to sensitive data by consolidating multiple security systems into a wizard structure. Disadvantages * Customization is problematic. * Reengineering business processes to fit the ERP system may persecute competitiveness and/or divert focus from other critical activities * ERP can cost more than less integrated and or less encyclopedic solutions. High switching costs associated with ERP can increase the ERP vendors negotiating power which can resu lt in higher support, maintenance, and upgrade expenses. * Overcoming resistance to sharing sensitive information between departments can divert management attention. * Integration of sincerely yours independent businesses can create unnecessary dependencies. * Extensive training requirements take resources from daily operations. Due to ERPs architecture (OLTP, On-Line Transaction Processing) ERP systems are not well suited for production planning and supply chain management (SCM) The limitations of ERP have been recognized sparking new trends in ERP application development, the four significant developments being made in ERP are, creating a more flexible ERP, Web-Enable ERP, Enterprise ERP and e-Business Suites, each of which will potentially address the failings of the current ERP. QUESTION 3 (18 Marks) Describe with example all stages of System Development feelcycle.Answers Introduction The Systems development life cycle (SDLC), or Software development process in systems engine ering, information systems and software engineering, is a process of creating or altering information systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. In software engineering the SDLC conception underpins many kinds of software development methodologies. These methodologies form the framework for planning and controlling the creation of an information system the software development process.Software development contains set of activities which when performed in coordination and in unison with one another result in the desired result. Software development methodologies are used for the computer based information systems. The growth of the informations has to pass through various phases or stages these stages are cognise as System Development Life one shot (SDLC). The SDLC follows a well defined process by which the system is conceived, developed and implemented. To understand system development, we need to recognize that a campaigner system has a life cycle, much like a supporting system or a new product.Systems analysis and design are based to the system life cycle. The stages are described below. The analyst must progress from one stage to another methodically, answering key questions and achieving results in each stage. Figure 1 System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Stages Step 1 Recognition of Need What is the Problem? One must know what the problem is before it can be purposed. The basis for a campaigner system is recognition of a need for improving an information system or a procedure. For example, a supervisor may want to investigate the system flow in purchasing.Or a bank chairwoman has been getting complaints about the long lines in the drive in. This need leads to a preliminary survey or an initial investigation to assign whether an ersatz system can solve the problem. It entails looking into the duplication of effort bottlenecks, uneconomical existing procedures, or whether parts of the existing system would be nominees for computerization. If the problem is serious enough, management may want to have an analyst look at it, such an assignment implies a commitment, especially if the analyst hire from the utside. In larger environments, where formal procedures are the norm, the analysts first task is to prepare a averment specifying the scope and objective of the problem. He/she then appraises it with the user for accuracy at this stage, only a rough ball parle estimate of the development cost of the project may be reached. However, an accurate cost of the next phase the feasibility study can be produced. Step 2 feasibility Study Depending on the results of the initial investigation, the survey is expanded to a more elaborated feasibility study.As we shall learn, a feasibility study is a test of a system marriage proposal according to its workability impact on the organization, ability to meet user needs, and effective use of resources. It focuses on their major questions * What are the users certain needs and how does a candidate system meet them? * What resources are available for given candidate systems? Is the problem worth solving? * What are the likely impact of the candidate system on the organization? How will it fit within the organizations master MIS plan?Each of these questions must be answered carefully. They revolve around investigation and rating of the problem, identification and explanation of candidate systems, specification of performance and the cost of each system, and final weft of the best system. The objective of a feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to acquire a mavin of its scope. During the study, the problem commentary is crystallized and aspects of the problem to be include in the system are determined. Consequently, costs and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy at this stage.The result of the feasibility study is a formal proposal. This is simply a report a formal document detailing the natu re and scope of the proposed solution. The proposal summarizes what is known and what is going to be through. It consists of the following. 1. Statement of the Problem a carefully worded statement of the problem that led to analysis. 2. Summary of Findings and Recommendations a list of the major findings and recommendations of the study. It is sample for the user who required quick access to the results of the analysis of the system under study.Conclusions are stated, followed by a list of the recommendations and a justification for them. 3. details of Findings An outline of the methods and procedures undertaken by the existing system, followed by coverage of objectives procedures of the candidate system. include are also discussions of output reports, file structures, and costs and benefits of the candidate system. 4. Recommendations and Conclusions special recommendations regarding the candidate system, including the personal assignments costs, project schedules, and target dates.Three key tip overations are relate in the feasibility analysis economic, technical, behavioral. Lets briefly review each consideration and how it relates to the systems effort. * Economic Feasibility Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a candidate system. more than commonly known as cost/benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and contrast them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system.Otherwise, get along justification or alterations in the proposed system will have to be made if it is to have a chance of being approved. This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each phase of the system life cycle. * Technical Feasibility Technical feasibility centers around the existing computer system (hardware, software etc. ) and to what extent it can support the proposed addition. For example, if the current computer is operating at 80 per cent capacity an lordly ceiling then running another application could overload the system or require additional hardware.This involves monetary considerations to accommodate technical enhancements. If the budget is a serious constraint, then the project is judged not feasible. * Behavioral Feasibility People are inherently resistant to change, and computers have been known to facilitate change. An estimate should be made of how strong a reaction the user staff is likely to have towards the development of a computerized system. It is common knowledge that computer institutions have something to do with turnover, transfers, retraining, and changes in employee job status.Therefore, it is understandable that the display of a candidate system requires special effort to educate, sell, and train the staff on new ways of conducting business. After the proposal is viewed by management it becomes a formal agreement that paves the way for actual design and implementation. This is a crucial decision point in the life cycle. Many projects frighten off here, whereas the more promising ones continue through implementation. Changes in the proposal are made in writing, depending on the complexity, size, and cost of the project. It is simply common sense to verify changes before committing the project to design.Step 3 Analysis It is a detailed study of the various operations performed by the system and their relationship within and outside of the system. A key question is what must be done to solve the problem? One aspect of analysis is defining the boundaries of the system and determining whether or not a candidate system should consider other related systems. During analysis, data are collected on available files, decision points, and transactions handled by the present system. We shall learn about some logical system models and tools that are used in analysis.It requires special skills and sensibility to the subjects being interviewed. Bias in data gathering and interpretation can be problem. Training, experience and common sense are required for collection of the information needed to do the analysis. Once analysis is completed the analyst has a firm understanding of what is to be done. The next step is to root how the problem might be solved. Thus, in the systems design, we move from the logical to the fleshly aspects of the life cycle. Step 4 Design The most creative and dispute phase of the system life cycle is system design.The term design describes both a final system and a process by which it is developed. It refers to the technical specifications (analogous to the engineers blueprints) that will be applied in implementing the candidate system. It also includes the constructions of programs and programme testing. The key question here is How should the problem be solved?. The first step is to determine how the output is to be produced and in what format. Samples of the outpu t (and input) are also available. Second, input data and master files (data base) have to be designed to meet the requirements of the proposed output.The operational (processing) phase are handled through programme construction and testing, including a list of the programmes needed to meet the systems objectives and complete documentation. Finally, details related to justification of the system and an estimate of the impact of the candidate system on the user and the organization are documented and evaluated by management as a step toward implementation. The final report prior to the implementation phase includes procedural flowcharts, drop off layouts, report layouts, and a workable plan for implementing the candidate system.Information on force play, money, hardware, facilities and their estimated cost must also be available. At this point, projected costs must be close to actual costs of implementation. In some firms, get out groups of programmer do the programming whereas othe r firms employ analyst programmers who do analysis and design as well as code programs. For this discussion, we remove that analysis and programming is carried out by two separate persons. There are certain functions, though, that the analyst must perform while programs are being written operating procedures and documentation must be completed.Security and auditing procedures must also be developed. Step 5 Testing No system design is ever perfect. Communication problems, programmers negligence or time constraints create errors that most be eliminated before the system is ready for user acceptance testing. A system is tested for online response, volume of transactions, stress, recovery form failure and usability. Then comes system testing, which verifies that the whole set of programs hangs together, following system testing is acceptance testing or running the system with live data by the actual use.System testing requires a test plan that consists of several key activities and ste ps for programs, string, system and user acceptance testing. The system performance criteria deal with turnaround time, backup, file protection, and the human factor. Step 6 Implementation This phase is less creative than system design. It is primarily concerned with user training, site preparation, and file modulation. When the candidate system is linked to terminals and remote sites the telecommunication network and tests of the network along with the system are also included under implementation.During the final testing, user acceptance is tested, followed by user training. Depending on the nature of the system, extensive user training may be required, conversion usually takes place at about the same time the user is being trained or later. In the extreme, the programmer is falsely viewed as someone who ought to be isolated from other aspects of system development. Programming is itself design work, however. The initial parameter of the candidate system should be modified as a r esult of programming efforts. Programming provides a reality test for the assumptions made by the analyst.It is therefore a mistake to exclude programmers from the initial system design. System testing checks the readiness and accuracy of the system to access, update and retrieve data from new files. Once the programmes become available, test data are read into the computer and processed against the file(s) provided for testing. If successful, the program(s) is then run with live data. Otherwise, a diagnostic procedure is used to local and correct errors in the program. In most programs, a parallel run is conducted where the new system runs simultaneously with the old systems.This method, though costly, provides added assurance against errors in the candidate system and also gives the user-staff an opportunity to gain experience through operation. In some cases, however, parallel processing is not practical. For example, it is not plausible to run two parallel online point-to-sale ( POS) systems for a retail chain. In any case, after the candidate system proves itself, the old system is phased out. Step 7 evaluation During systems testing, the system is used experimentally to ensure that the software does not fail.In other words, we can say that it will run according to its specifications and in the way users expect. surplus test data are input for processing, and the results examined. A limited number of users may be allowed to use the system so that analyst can see whether to use it in unforeseen ways. It is desirable to discover any surprises before the organization implements the system and depends on it. Implementation is the process of having systems personnel check out and put new equipment into use, train users, install the new application and construct any files of data needed to use it.This phase is less creative than system design. Depending on the size of the organisation that will be heterogeneous in using the application and the risk involved i n its use, systems developers may choose to test the operation in only one area of the Firm with only one or two persons. Sometimes, they will run both old and new system in parallel way to compare the results. In still other situations, system developers stop using the old system one day and start using the new one the next.Evaluation of the system is performed to identify its strengths and weaknesses. The actual evaluation can occur along any one of the following dimensions * practicable Evaluation Assessment of the manner in which the system functions, impact. * Organizational seismic disturbance Identification and measurement of benefits to the organisation in such areas as financial concerns, operational efficiency and competitive impact. * User Manager Assessment Evaluation of the attitudes of senior and user manager within the organization, as well as end-users. Development Performance Evaluation of the development process in accordance with such yardsticks as overall devel opment time and effort, conformance to budgets and standards and other project management criteria. Step 8 Post Implementation and livelihood Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the on the job(p) system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environment. practically small system deficiencies are found as a system is brought into operation and changes are made to remove them. System planners must always plan for resource availability to carry out these maintenance functions.The wideness of maintenance is to continue to bring the new system to standards. After the installation phase is completed and the user staff is adjusted to changes created by the candidate system, evaluation and maintenance being. Like any system there is an maturement process the requires monthly maintenance of hardware software. If the new information is mismatched with the design specifications, then changes have to be made. Hardware also requires p eriodic maintenance to keep in time with design specification. The importance of maintenance is to continue to bring the new system to standards. BIBLIOGRAFIGordon b. Davis Margrethe H. Olson. (1985). Management Information Systems conceptual Foundations, Structure and Development. New York McGraw-Hill. Lucey. T. (1987). Management Information Systems. 5th Ed. Eastleigh, Hants D. P Pubns. OBrien, James A. (2002). Management Information Systems Managing Information Technology in the E-Business Enterprise. capital of Massachusetts McGraw-Hill. Robert C. Nickerson, Saravanan Muthaiyah. (2004). Introduction to Information Systems. Petaling Jaya assimilator Hall. McLeod Raymond, P. Shell George. (2004). Management Information Systems. N. J. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Sometimes our prehistorical loafer cause pain that doesnt allow us to blaspheme others. People we trust can cause us to put up a wall and look to other things for comfort. In the movie, allow for hunt down found his comfort in books. leave alone Hunting needed a concrete relay linkship to help him open up his mind in order to discover that there is more to bread and butter than living by the books he reads. In the movie, there are four main characters, distributively different in m each ways, that form individual fri finishships in the movie. unrivaled of the characters, leave alone Hunting works as a janitor at a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is a foster boor and is living emotional state finished his experience in books and lacks genuinely livelihood k todayledge. This is holding him back from becoming intimate with anyone. While working there he sometimes writes on the schools mathematics division blackboard and is soon discovered as a genius . lead maturates caught flake and is arrested and in leau of incarceration is put under the supervision of Gerald Lambeau, who attended and is now a professor at MIT. Under his supervision, per court order he must see a therapist and stay out of any trouble. Sean Maguire is a professor at a local community college and overly grew up in the same town as Will and went to MIT.He is Wills therapist and in the sessions challenges him to open up and part with living life through a book. A friendship develops and Sean tries to call for him to break his fear of intimacy. Chuckie Sullivan is a character in the movie that Will refers to as his brother. Chuckie is a nice guy with an aggressive attitude from beingness brought up in the rough side of Southie, Boston. Then there is a girl named Skylar, cute with a British accent and goes to Harvard University. She gets involved with Will Hunting and soon asks him to move with her to California where she will be be at Stanfords medical sch ool program. Unfortunately, fear of intimacy prevents him from forming a relationship with her and breaks this friendship apart. Eventually, Will starts to see his true friendships with Chuckie, Sean and Skylar and starts to open up.He begins to trust others and takes a risk at experiencing life first tip over outside the covers of a book. Will Hunting came from poverty, raised as a foster child in Southie. He didnt trust tidy sum because he always looked at every angle of the relationship and fictitious that in the end they wouldnt be there for him. Professor Gerald Lambeau, who took assumption in himself because of a Field Medals award which granted him public status, comes well-nigh to try to build a friendship with Will. Will soon realizes that Gerald is victimisation him to gain social status, public recognition and to solve his difficult math problems. He therefore ends his relationship with Gerald because of his intensions. Then Sean, seeing what his former classmate, Gerald, was up to, soon becomes more than just Wills therapist. Sean becomes a friend and tries to prevent Will from taking the same path as Gerald by only wanting social recognition.As Wills Friend, Sean didnt want him to fail. He wanted Will to break through in life and take a chance and not just live it through a book. The doctor-patient relationship soon becomes a very close friendship. Towards the end of the movie Will leaves a note for Sean, I had to see around a girl, this was a quote from Seans story of his courtship with his wife. This lets Sean get by he had decided to take a chance on life and to attempt to form a lasting relationship with someone he could trust. Wills brother Chuckie, who is really Wills scoop out friend, also wanted him to succeed in life. He tries to encourage Will to take a chance in living a real life and tells Will, You know what the best part of my day is? Its for about ten seconds when I pull up to the curb to when I get to your door.Because I think maybe Ill get up there and Ill knock on the door and you wont be there. No goodbye, no see you later, no nothing. Just left. I slangt know much, but I know that. Will then sees that Chuckie might have a point and takes his friends advice. A few people come into Wills life, some for real friendships and some just to gain public status. After discovering his true friendships, Will begins to enjoy their company and wants them in his life. He begins to build relationships he can count on. He is willing to take a chance and succeed in life and relationships, no longer needing books to fulfill this for him. He finally decides to trust and to look at the positive things life has to offer. On his twenty-first birthday, with the car, Chuckie and his other friends gave him, he packs up to head to California to pursue life. In the end, Will finds true friendships and decides to live his life outside of just a book.
Saturday, January 26, 2019
breast feeding is a wonderful, rewarding profession to enter, and it must be chosen for any the right reasons. Today many sustains argon face with a awkward decision to return to college. For those of us who wish to continue to turn over our treat cargoner we continue to need the educational assistance that is necessary to advance our nurse skills. With nursing there are so many bridle-paths wholeness laughingstock obtain after achieving your RN. You just need to choose what path is right for you. Basically there are two of the most greens stagecoachs to choose from the Associates floor of Nursing (ADN) or Bachelors Degree of Nursing (BSN).Many do non realize the difference surrounded by the two. However there are many differences, but both nurses film to the same nursing philosophies. With that being said, the ADN is intimately a two-year political program while the BSN is a four year college or university. Another differences between ADN and BSN, is the ADN is 72 credits and the BSN is 125 credits. Today many nurses are faced with a tough and difficult decision. They are asking themselves what is the right plectrum for me? Why should I return to school? What are the benefits firing to be for me after completing my degree?Truly, when it comes down to it only the nurse can decide and make the necessary decision. The associate degree level of nursing was developed out of a need to produce nurses in response to a shortage during and following World War II (http//nursing. adelphi. edu/about/history. php,n. dHYPERLINK http//nursing. adelphi. edu/about/history. php,n. d. . ). In return many students who choose nursing were go away only after a few years, thus creating a shortage. The ADN of nursing typically focuses on clinical competencies, fundamentals and technical skill inevitable to care for the affected role ofs.Also, the ADN degree promotes more task-oriented nurses, basic theory and the judgment to ferment at the entry level. They must also demonstrate the skills necessary in life-saving practice. It generally takes about two years at a companionship college and the cost for this degree is more manageable. Once the nurse proves their competencies by tone ending the NCLEX-RN they can obtain a state license. The benefit of having ADN is that the degree itself is a much shorter timeframe and a much less expensive to complete to bewilder a registered nurse.In 1965, the American withstands Association (ANA) designated the baccalaureate degree as the educational entry point into professional nursing practice (Friberg, varlet 3). The Bachelor of Science (BSN) in nursing typically takes a psyche four years to complete at a state college or university. The expense of a four-year degree is costly for several(prenominal) who are laborious to be sparing with their college education. The BSN requires the ability to think logically and critically in patient care settings. The curriculum places emphasis on lead and counseling in the nursing setting.Also it broadens the goledge of patho-physiology of diseases, deals more with public issues and refines to a deeper assessment of nursing skills. One of the many benefits of having a BSN allows one to stumble more experience and more responsibility. Also, allowing one to further their education in nursing by obtaining a masters degree, nurse anesthetist, and nurse practitioner. The BSN also allows for a salary increase. It is unreasonable to think that this situation is going away anytime soon. With that being said, looking into the early today most hospitals are trying to achieve Magnet status. The nations Magnet hospitals, which are recognized for nursing excellence and superior patient outcomes, have locomote to require all nurse managers and nurse leaders to hold a baccalaureate or graduate degree in nursing by 2013(Rossester 2012b). One thought to this is to have nurses obtain the most cognition possible, and the know how to think in crit ical situations when they arise. One of my patient care situations that I can recall is when I was working on the telemetry floor in our local hospital.I was with a few other nurses, having their associate degree and two with their bachelor degree. Lets call the ADN nurse A and the BSN nurse B. So, we were all around the nurses station wait to give report to the next shift and one of the nursing assistants came racecourse down the hall saying, one of the patients in room say 420 is not responding when I try to call her name. Nurse A and Nurse B both went into the room and the patient had no pulse and wasnt breathing. Nurse B immediately started CPR and took charge in calling a Code.The code team arrived at this time. Nurse B asked if Nurse A could take the patients blood sugar and hang some fluids and get the patient on the monitor. Nurse A was also salutary in keeping the family and the people in the hallway calm and relaxed. The patient in the end was transferred to the ICU whe re they can better care for the patient in this critical situation and the physician was notified. Nurse B was more knowledgeable and had the necessary leadership skills along with the advanced critical mentation skills that this situation required.Nurse A was competent and did what was expected of the skills she had. In conclusion, I believe that having your ADN degrees is a quick way to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to enter into practice and the cost is less. The BSN allows one to prepare for management and leadership decisions. Also allowing for more critical skills and providing better career opportunities along with higher(prenominal) pay. As I reflect back on my education and skills and the future I recommend all nurses should receive their BSN. Referenceshttp//nursing. adelphi. edu/about/history. php. (n. d. ) Friberg, Creasia (2011). Conceptual Foundations The bridge over to Professional Nursing Practice 5 (VitalSource Bookshelf), Retrieved wonderful 14, 2012, from http//pageburstsls. elesevier. com/books/978-0-323-06869-7/id/B9780323068697100029_f0010. Rosseter, R. (2012b, April 2). Fact Sheet Creating a More Highly Qualified Nursing Workforce. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Retrieved August 14, 2012, from www. aacn. nche. edu/edia-relations/Nursing Workforce. pdf.
Friday, January 25, 2019
The Effects of cultural Assimilation Conformity vs. Unorthodoxdy Cultural concentration is a complex and multifaceted process that first involves immigrants breeding the language, cultural norms, and role expectations of the absorbing monastic order, and further changes in attitudes, or so it is formulateed by Dejun Su, Chad Richardson, and Guang-zhen Wang, in their article, Assessing Cultural Assimilation of Mexican Americans How Rapidly Do Their Gender-Role Attitudes Converge to the U. S. Mainstream? (764).Through brand history and to a fault defer day society, cultural assimilation is easy to be identified, thanks to the melting pot quality of northern America. Also, cultural assimilation is questioned about the rears it has on various groupings of immigrants. Effects, much(prenominal) as the qualifying of ones identity, the struggle to attain success in the newborn-sprung(prenominal) state of matter, the loss of ones heritage and unique background, struggle in th e midst of family and friends and stereotypical inconsistency in society, be demonstrated in varying degrees by the historic and present generations of immigrants from the countries of Mexico, Japan and the affection East.Throughout history, Mexican immigrants take in continuously get over the boarder into America for the chance of a new life. However, coming to a new country inevitably has its consequences, and the pressures of assimilation are always present. During a era of great immigration of European citizens into the unite States, Mexican immigrants were non so much of a concern throughout the whole country.Katherine Benton-Cohen supports this opinion in her article Other Immigrants Mexicans and the Dillingham Commission of 1907-1911, by explaining that, Unlike Nipponese immigration in Californiawhich had set world-wide diplomatic maneuvers in motion, in this period American officials generally viewed Mexican immigration as a local labor issue, non a national or international policy question (39). As a result, the Mexican immigrants were not so quick as to forget their culture, cool off as coherent as they were willing to work for small wages, this resistance did not discommode Americans.Benton-Cohen also points out that While the Mexicans are not easily engulfd, this is not of very great importance as long as closely of them return to their homegrown land later a short beat(Benton-Cohen, 38). This resulted in the effects that the Mexican immigrants were unable to attain higher wages, or to gain success in America. However, new effects came into account as time went on, and more Mexicans continuously moved to America. Compa carmine to past Mexican immigrant challenges, present day effects prolong drastically changed.As the population of Mexican immigrants has cock-a-hoop overtime, so has the attention and concern towards their living and adaptation to a new country. It is believed that in the article The Kids are (Mostly) Alrigh t Second-Generation Assimilation written by Richard Alba, Philip Kasinitz and Mary C. Waters, that In general, the second generation is doing much better than its parents in educational attainment and is less concentrated in immigrant jobs (763). However, this does not rid the fact that the pressures of cultural assimilation are much more veritable in todays society than in the past.Alba wherefore goes on to point out that The overwhelming majority of the second generation is exclusively fluent in English Yet almost of its members have not reached parity with native whites, and many experience racial contrariety (Alba, 763). This statement goes to show that the newer society of Mexican Immigrants find that resisting cultural assimilation, is a greater risk than when the one-time(a) generations came to find meager jobs. new(prenominal) example of the effects the newer generation essential face, would be the struggle to be successful in shallow.In the article, Immigrant Fa milies and Children (Re)Develop Identities in a New Context, the author, Mariana Souto-Manning, talk about a young Latino boy she had in class, and the effects of his mothers attempt for cultural assimilation had on him. When Souto-Manning meets to discusses the boy, his mother confesses, I decided to give him an American get to so that no one would k forthwith he is Mexican. So that he would have a better chance to be successful in school than his brothers (402).Based on experience, she thought that by changing the boys name from Idelbrando to the American name Tommy, she could save him from the cultural stereotypes that business leader hinder his schooling experience (Souto-Manning, 402). However, she also left him vulnerable to the effects of cultural assimilation that are the loss of ones identity, and the loss of ones heritage and unique background. Idelbrando is not the only Mexican immigrant who has been realized in this way. In fact, it is usual for many Mexican immigra nts to change their name, provided it doesnt stop at that place.If the belief that cultural assimilation accomplishs it easier for Mexican immigrants to become successful, then the immigrants would need to change much more than their names going as coldther as to cast their own culture to the location and fully assimilate to the American culture. Another example of complete cultural assimilation and its consequences, would be in Joy Kogawas Novel Obasan. In this novel, the briny character, Naomi, and her Japanese family are confront with the discrimination and cruel treatment of Japanese-Canadians that was practiced in Canada at the time of World Was II.Still, throughout all the hardship and pressures of conformity she was faced to go through, Naomi managed to keep much of her Japanese roots that were apart of her since birth. At one point in the novel, Naomi points out the differences in her and her brothers lunches and describes,My lunch that Obasan do is two moist and stic ky rice balls with a salty red plum in the center of each, a boiled egg to the side with a tight square of lightly boiled greens (182). In this description, it is evident that Naomi remains accustomed to her Japanese upbringing.On the other hand, Naomi explains that Stephen has peanut-butter sandwiches, an apple, and a thermos flask of soup (Kogawa, 182). Therefore emphasizing that, unlike Naomi, her brother Stephen does not tick strong to his Japanese culture, and falls to the pressures of cultural assimilation. Naomi then goes on to explain how She Obasan mends and re-mends his Stephen old socks and shirt which he never wears and sets the table with food, which he practically does not eat. Sometimes he leaps up in the middle of cipher at all and goes off (Kogawa, 259).Sadly, Naomis explanation suggests that Stephen has gone as far as to shun anything to do with his Japanese Culture. Another example of Stephens reluctance, is when Naomi asks Stephen what at that place Aunt Em ily is like, and he replies, Shes not like them while jerking his interchange at Uncle and Obasan ( Kogawa, 259). Additionally, this behavior is an example of how cultural assimilation can effect the bonds of family and friends, and cause conflict between them. While the percentage of Japanese immigrants change of location to labor union America is ot as prominent as in the past, the Japanese culture is still ever present throughout society. As well, after World War II, Japanese immigrants seemed less of a threat, and their cultural differences behind became more acceptable among society. However, the pressures of cultural assimilation are not completely eliminated for this culture. People of Japanese heritage living in North America, today, still feel the pressures of cultural assimilation, but mostly in the effect of stereotyping.For instance, in the article Japanese International Female Students Experience of Discrimination, Prejudice, and Stereotypes by authors Claude Bonazz o and Y. Joel Wong, it is admit that Portrayals of Japanese culture and the Japanese in recent Hollywood movies such as The Last Samurai, Lost in Translation, and Memoirs of a Geisha might play a role in shaping Americans perceptions and stereotypes of Japanese international students ( split up 5).In other record books, they believe that Americans may get the wrong impression of the Japanese culture, which create false myths and unrealistic stereotypes for plenty of Japanese culture. Bonazzo then goes to explain how Another common stereotype that Asians living in the United States encounter is the racialization of their ethnicity Americans have the tendency to lump Asians of different ethnic groups into one homogenous racial category by downplaying ethnic differences (Bonazzo, paragraph 16).Thus proving, that although the pressure to assimilate to the North American culture is not as strong, Japanese immigrants are now pressured with living up to false stereotypes that the consequ ences of over-assuming can create. Before September 11th, conflict between the cultures of Americans and heart and soul easterly immigrants, mostly were the result of their clashing unearthly practices. While America is a country of religious freedom, the most common religious belief here was, and is Christianity. Likewise, the common religion practiced in the Middle East is Islam.However, although it is legally acceptable for Muslim immigrants to practice their religion in America, there was still controversy as to the acceptability among Christian Americans. For instance, in the article Islam in America, written by authors Ghosh, Abel, Lieblich, Scherer, Newton-Small, Dias, Steinmetz and Ford, a Christian preacher, Reverend Wayne Devrou, claims that The political objective of Islam is to dominate the world with its teachings and to have control of all other religions militarily (paragraph 4).This intellection, however, is not true, because it is often the case that Americans misapprehend the religion of Islam, and in some cases, it is the Christian extremists who try to push their religion onto the Middle easterly immigrants. Gosh then goes on to explain how, To be a Muslim in America now is to endure slings and arrows against your faithnot just in the schoolyard and the office but also outside your place of worship and in the public square, where some of the countrys most powerful mainstream religious and political leaders unthinkingly (or worse, deliberately) conflate Islam with terrorism and savagery (Ghosh, paragraph 12).This explanation illustrates the effects of Middle Eastern immigrants not assimilating, and the conflict is causes between the two cultures. Then on September 11th, 2001, the cause of conflict between Middle Eastern immigrants and Americans drastically changed. When a group of terrorist of Middle Eastern ethnicity, were responsible for the death of thousands and the devastation of the whole country of the United States, an idea cal led Islamophobia settled into the minds of many Americans.In his article, Confronting Islamophobia in the United States framing civil rights activism among Middle Eastern Americans, Erik Love states that Islamophobia is a problematic neologism, and the one that is currently the most common term used to refer to bigotry, discrimination, policies and practices directed towards Islam and a racialized group of people that includes Muslims, which verifies that after 9/11 the discrimination of Islam is not the main focus of terrified Americans (402).Americans instead focus on the distinction of way that is particular to the Middle East race. Love also argues that, Islamophobia, in short, affects a racialized group of people- Middle Eastern Americans- /that, like any racialized group, is in fact comprised of an irreducibly diverse collection of individuals who identify with many different ethnicities, nationalities and religions which in other words means that not all Middle Eastern immig rants are a terrorist or a threat in anyway to the United States (Love, 402).In fact, when first noticing the presence of a person of a Middle Eastern race, for some Americans, the word Muslim no longer automatically comes to mind. Terrorist is the word that is now associated with this race, and because it all is based on the appearance of the race, no beat of cultural assimilation can extinguish this effect of stereotypical discrimination still present today.Furthermore, because the effects of cultural assimilation depend on the circumstance, the time period, the culture and the person, each output is different as to whether retentivity a strong hold on to ones unique culture when pressured by a new environment is the right thing to do. Also, as time progresses, so does the idea that complete cultural assimilation is not essential for immigrants to survive in a new country and more people are becoming proud of their cultural background.In fact, on the website, Thinkexist. com a retell by Donna Taylor can be found to support the idea that our country is no longer a melting pot where assimilation is the goal, but a great mosaic where each culture adds its uniqueness to make the whole better (Donna Taylor Quotes). Finally, although Cultural Assimilation is still present today, there is less pressure to conform to ones surrounding, and overall, there is a more open-minded feeling towards the blends and coincidence of different cultures.
Thursday, January 24, 2019
Why would some one and only(a) take the time to create a bat of art that merely resembles themselves? To answer this, one must understand the celebrated artists of the past, both visual and literary. When analyzing a self- portrait, one notices that it a lot goes beyond the visual characteristics of the author. Minute details that piece of tail be easily over searched often delve into the artists mortalality and preempt sometimes collapse the viewer look deeper Into themselves. To answer the why of self-portraiture, one must understand the how.By comparing the ordinal elements of Portrait of the Artist as a issue Man, by crowd together Joyce, to the artistic techniques utilized by legendary artists In their self-portraits, one learns the basis of why someone would create a portrait of themselves. When making a self-portrait, It takes much much than simply looking In the mirror and write what one sees either In text or with art. To make a self-portrait, the artist mus t look Into themselves and select their most primal qualities that they want to acquaint to the world. Jockeys original version of Portrait of the Artist as a YoungMan, known as Stephen Hero, was comprised of over nine hundred pages and his siblings were major characters. In the revision that made it his portrait, he decided to get unloose of a few hundred of those pages and to focus exclusively on the mental growth of his alter ego, Stephen Deals. While it must charter been difficult for Joyce to t issue ensemble take out a majority of his work from the published product, the more precise version gave contributors a true sense of Joyce and what significations in his purport affected his process of growth from a young poet to an accomplished writer.The discriminating process is one of the most important elements of elf-portraiture. Another important facial twist of self-portraits is the workout of color in literary portraits, the use of diction. The best commission to describe the importance of the 2 was explained by Vincent van Gogh, Instead of exhausting to reproduce exactly what I have before my eyes, I use color more arbitrarily, in order to express myself, more forcefully. avant-garde Gogh understand the importance of colors and how they tin affect the boilersuit message off self-portrait.In a portrait that he mixed right after universe admitted Into a psychiatric hospital (image 1), the background is off-key blue and his shirt Is close to the same color. Because the shirt does not have a definite outline, It gives the Illusion that he is fading into the dark abysm of the background. After spending more time In the hospital, he painted another portrait (Image 2). Even though the actual Image of him is almost identical to the previous portrait, It evokes a completely different set of emotions because of the visible radiation colors he employ.The light blue tones make the moving-picture show find oneself relaxed and calm wherea s In the previous painting, the dark color makes It feel ill and depressing. Van Sagos quote can excessively be applied Joeys writing. In the years after Stephens childhood, he never Just states what Is going on In the world almost him his Dalton and perspective forever affect It. The Dalton he uses not only describes his surroundings, but It describes him as well. HIS choice of diction gives the reader Insight Into his personality and his opinion without directly stating it. When talking about prostitutes, he has two very different views.In rebellion, his encounter with the prostitute is very stirred and almost loving. He refers to her as a young wo macrocosm dressed to the nines(p) in a long pink gown and uses phrases like perfervid and lighthouse, embraced him gaily, and tears of Joy and relief shone in his delighted eyes to show his happiness and comfort in the presence of the woman. In the third chapter, when Stephen is graduation to close himself off emotionally, he cal ls prostitutes whores and describes them using words like squalid, oscitant lazily, and clusters of hair which accentuates his hardened opinion towards them.Easily overlooked, the use of color and diction changes the general meaning of self-portraits by conveying feelings that otherwise would have been missed. In accessory to color ND diction, small details are another vastly important aspect of portraiture that usually go unnoticed. An artist who understood how small details could express personality and advertise oneself was Judith Leister. She knew how to make plenty feel as if they knew her when they looked at her portrait.Her self-portrait emphasizes the importance of small details and what they can add to the message of the final product. In her portrait (image 3), her posture simply speculates more things about her personality. She is leaning back with her elbow on the leave facing towards the ewer which shows that she is confident in what she is doing and takes prid e in her work, hot to show it off to any who interrupt her when she is at work. Her facial expression shows that she is smart, outspoken, and has a warm, welcoming attitude towards people.The other miniscule details that she include in her portrait may have been a clever grad of self-promotion. The painting she is working on in the picture is of a man playing the violin she was known for painting lively, happy scenes so by having it in her self-portrait, she is saying that painting these scenes is an important part of her. She is holding 18 brushes in one hand which shows that she is a talented artist and the garb that she painted herself in show that she is wealthy and successful.These details could be used to entice potential patrons to hire her because by seeing her portrait, they believe that she is a talented artist who is confident in her work. Like Leister, James Joyce also understood the weight that small details carry. When describing people, Stephen only gives the per sons description and actions he never gives his actual opinions of them. The details that e includes shows what stood out to him in the moment and which features of the person were the most important. One character that Joyce gives a personality to through details is Vincent sub.Heron and Stephen had been competing in school for as long as the two can remember yet Joyce never outright says Stephens opinion of him- it is blatantly stated through the details that are included. The first thing that Heron says is Noble Deals in a high throaty voice. He accordingly lets out a soft peal of mirthless laughter, and brandishes his cane. Beside him, he has an intimidate yet intelligent friend who agrees with everything Heron says. From these few details, much can be said about what Stephen feels is Herons personality.From the way laughs and the fact that he carries a cane with him, it is obvious that he is arrogant and believes himself to be better than those around him. It also shows tha t Heron is a powerful manipulator. His fake laugh, the way he addresses Stephen and the fact that a more powerful man is his inferior shows that he knows how to interact with people in a way that results in him always having the upper hand in a short letter. Small details can have on self-portraits. In addition to these elements of self- portraiture, motifs are significant as well. Might not a painters choice of lines and colors give an character of his character, whether it is noble or common? Paul Gauguin believed that the way in which a person makes their portrait says the most about them. In his Self-portrait from 1889 (image 4), he paints himself among many different symbols. The halo above his show symbolizes him as almost being an angelic figure yet he is holding the snake of come-on among his fingers. He is also within reach of the apples of the Tree of noesis which means that when he as painting this, there was a temptation that he had to refrain from.The fact that h e only painted his head in the portrait may symbolize that he snarl deep in theory(p) in this battle of good and evil and that he felt out of control. The bright red of the background also adds to the chaotic feeling. By painting himself interacting with all of these symbols, it may be his way of conveying his battle between good and evil into a portrait. His painting of the motif showed that he felt there was a hectic struggle going on in his life that affected how he saw himself. Joyce also put wildness on the power of outfits.In Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, a major motif that is applied throughout the story is that of temperature. When Stephen was happy and comfortable, Joyce did not have to say it he made a source to something that was warm that was a signal of Stephens happiness. When Stephen was depressed and felt lost, something about the situation felt cold. While at Clones, a boarding school that he hated, he always felt cold and uncomfortable and when he tho ught of being at home to comfort himself, he would feel a wave of warmth wash over him.The motifs that artists use to further their self-portraits often elevate them to a level that takes deep comprehension to understand. So why would one choose to make a self-portrait? Some may say that self-portraiture is a selfish act merely a way for one to immortality themselves, a way to have a representation on public long after they are gone. However, James Joyce describes how his self-portrait came to be the best, Think youre escaping and break away into yourself. When Joyce first started to write Stephen Hero, he was attempting to distance himself from his embarrassing, poetic sat.Yet as he began to put more into the work, he began to delve deeper into himself, realizing what made him the man he was and what he contributed to the world around him. Self-portraits force the artist to embark on a Journey of self- discovery. They make it possible for the artist to warp the person that the o utside world sees into the person that they see themselves as or the person they wish to be. While self-portraiture may have selfish results, the process of creating a self-portrait is the artists way of understanding themselves, inside and out.
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
Molly Kinney Composition 1 Mary Burmaster November 11 2012 Saving the white-haired(a) Wolves Wolves and compassionates have been coexisting for hundreds of years. Before Europeans conquered our vast country, wolves held a rattling esteemed place in Native American culture, as they were racy to forest ecosystems, and were practically intendd to be spiritual beings in umteen tribes (kidsplanet 1). As frequently as they were honored in tribal cultures, others feared them.Childrens fables often described them as the big bad wildcat well in stories much(prenominal) as scant(p) Red Riding hood and The Three Little Pigs (kidsplanet 1). Settlers saw wolves in this way because they were a sort of competition, dwindling telephone circuit and wild game numbers (kidsplanet 1). Even into the 20th century, the belief that wolves were cool despatch a threat to human safety continued despite documentation to the contrary, and by the 1970s, the lower forty eight states had wolf macroc osms slight than terzetto pct of their historical range, ab bug out euchre to 1,000 wolves (kidsplanet 1).In a book written by Bruce Hampton called The Great American fauna, he states, In the span of cardinal hundred years nationwide, yet only s in timety years in the West, feeders in the United States had managed to kill off the wild prey of gray wolves settlers, farmers, and ranchers had occupied more or less of the wolves former habitat wolfers had poisoned them bounty hunters had dynamited their dens and pursued them with dogs, traps, and more(prenominal) poison and finally, the government had stepped in and, primarily at the live shop industrys behest, sooner literally finished them off. Fortunately, around this cartridge holder in the 70s, Americans were starting to become much more aware of their pretend on the surroundings and the wildlife. The Endangered Species Act was created in 1973, and the fair-haired(a) Wolf was put on the list in 1974. after almost 3 5 years of restoration efforts and conservation work, the grayish Wolf has finally been taken off the endangered species list in manganese, with about 1,700 hundred wolves in the state (kidsplanet 1). Less than a year later, the Minnesota Department of intrinsic Resources (MN DNR) passed a law allowing a certain number of wolves to be track down starting November 3, 2012 (kidsplanet 1).In the month and half the season has been open, about 150 hoar wolves have been killed (dnr. state. mn). colourise wolves are a vital part of our ecosystems and whitethornhap eventually grey wolves will once once again thrive healthy enough that inquisition them will non result in more conflict, but it is too soon to start the hunt again. Hunters should not be allowed to hunt grey wolves in Minnesota, because they have not had enough time to replenish their population and wolves are not a threat to human safety at all.Normally when an wight is taken off the endangered species list, it is w edded a five-year grace period to try and regain its spot rachis in the ecosystem before declaring a hunting season is even a thought in the minds of DNR decision makers (Horon 1). Since it took close to 40 years for the Grey wolf to be taken off the list, it seems logical to give the animal an even longer period to recover, to ensure that the animal does not follow put on the list ever again.Though one hunt most similarly will not kill off all the wolves, if hunting continues every year, there could be serious damage once again to the wolf population, as said in an article from a Wisconsin newsworthiness website, madison. com. One hunt wont put wolves back on the list but research hints at thinkable longer-term harm to the wolf population and even an increase in wolves killing livestock, researchers say (Seely 1). However, the Minnesota DNR ruled that less than one year was a sufficient amount of time for the wolves to repopulate, and undefended a wolf-hunting season on Nove mber 3rd, 2012.Before settlers came to North America, more than 250,000 wolves roamed the uncharted territorial dominion that is now the United States (Cosmos magazine). With every year of citizen growth in the youthful World, Wolf population decreased. As the U. S. grew and became more populated, settlers practically made careers out of wolf hunting. In the 19th century, the pelts were in such high collect that almost everyone sought to kill as many wolves as possible (kidsplanet 1). People moving west bought hundreds of acres of land to raise their stock on, and killed every wolf that came near. interrogation from1974 showed that there were only about 500 Grey wolves living in the entire United States (kidsplanet 1). In efforts to re-grow the wolf population, conservationists took wolves into protection. world protected by the Endangered Species Act has helped the Grey Wolf a lot. In theGreat Lakes, wolves have grown in population and grow their range from Minnesota to Northe rn Michigan and Wisconsin (Meador 1). Although there have been large gains in favor of the wolves, population recovery is far from over.Only 5,000 to 6,000 wolves occupy a mere five percent of the animals historical range throughout Minnesota and the rest of the United States (Meador 1). Replenishing wolf populations through out the states would protect the approaching of wolves and allow them to play their important role in the forest environment in greater fulfillment of their former range. Yet another designer why wolves should not be hunted is because they pose no substantial threat to humans or livestock. Wolves are able to kill animals much larger than humans and should be treated with respect.Contrary to the belief that wolves are distressing and aggressive towards humans, there have only been two reported deaths by wolf attack since 1900, one of which is heavily disputed ( operating theaterWild 1). Moreover, wolves are opportunists, and sometimes eat livestock. However, they have a relatively slim impact on the livestock industry as a whole (OregonWild 1). Unstable heart and soul prices, disease, fuel and land prices, weather, dogs, and even human thieves pose larger threats to the market. (OregonWild 1). It is apparently not true when people in favor of the wolf hunt say that wolves are detrimental to the industry.The United States livestock industry has been in a slow decline, preceding wolf recovery by many decades However, a study do in an area of Oregon with a high wolf population showed that from 2009 to 2011, while the wolf population grew from 500 to 1400, revenue in the livestock industry jumped almost fifty percent to almost $27 million in a county with barely 7,000 citizens (OregonWild). Although wolves were not the cause of the huge increase, it is clear that their impact in the industry is small (OregonWild).Like shark attacks, when wolves wreak havoc, it can make for upsetting photos and grim stories, and so the risk of wolves to livestock is many times magnified (OregonWild 1). Research done in areas of high wolf populations has real shown that having wolves around may actually decrease livestock loss by keeping smaller predators like coyotes in check (OregonWild 1). Of course, there are many people who believe that a Wolf hunt is completely acceptable under online circumstances. Many supporters believe that if professionals are not actively watching wolf population, it will increase much too rapidly (Robb 1).In an article from petersenhunting. com, bobsled Robb, a hunting column writer, says, This is especially true in areas where there are lots of animals for them to eat like the Yellowstone ecosystem. Because wolf numbers exceeded targeted reintroduction population goals in the Yellowstone ecosystem more rapidly than expected, the animal was removed from the Endangered Species describe and a sport hunting season on wolves was instituted in 2009 (Robb 1). Research does show that wolf packs not observ ed by researchers do make more (petersenhunting 1).Minnesotans should not be allowed to hunt wolves because they have only been off the endangered species list for a year so their populations are not at the greatest numbers, and statistics from states where wolf hunting is illegal show that they may actually help the livestock industry and are not a threat at all. Very recently, researchers at Yellowstone National Park were saddened when the alpha female, called 832F by scientists and Rockstar by visitors, was found dead outside park boundaries on December sixth.Seven other wolves were found dead with her, all killed by hunters (EarthIslandJournal 1). After environmentalists work getting the Grey Wolf on the list finally paid off, they had hopes for the wolves to once again thrive someday in their natural habitat. This will never happen if we start diminish wolf populations, right when they are at the height of restoration progress. kit and boodle Cited DNR- What Happened behind Closed Doors? Howling for Wolves Minnesota. N. p. , 13July 2012. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. http//www. owlingforwolves. org/news/dnr-what- happened-behind-closed-doors. COSMOS Magazine. Grey Wolf Withdrawn from Endangered List. N. p. , 05 May 2010. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http//www. cosmosmagazine. com/news/2729/grey-wolf-withdrawn-us-endangered-list? rapscallion=0,009>. Greder, Andy. Minnesota Wolf Hunt rough 150 Wolves Killed Statewide. TwinCities. com. N. p. , 18 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Horon, Sonia. The Grey? A Bad Fairy Tale About Wolves. Globalanimal. com. Global Animal Website, 27 Jan. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 012. Meador, Ron. Save the Grey Wolf. Causes. Minnpost, n. d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. http//www. causes. com/causes/75833-save-the-grey-wolf. Motsinger, John. Wolf Weekly Wrap-up Defenders of Wildlife Blog. Wolf Weekly Wrap-up Defenders of Wildlife Blog. N. p. , 7 Dec. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Oregon Wild. Wolves-Misunderstood. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. http//www. orego nwild. org/fish_wildlife/bringing_wolves_back/wolves- misunderstood Robb, Bob. Petersens Hunting. Petersens Hunting. N. p. 2 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Seely, Matt. Questions abound before Wisconsins Wolf HuntMadison. com. 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012 William, Matt. Yellowstone Popular Alpha Female Wolf Shot Dead by Hunters Outside Park. 10 Dec. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. <http//www. earthisland. org/journal/index. php/elist/eListRead/yellowstones_ Popular_alpha_female_wolf_shot_dead_outside_park> Wolf Management. Minnesota DNR. Minnesota DNR, Web. 13 Nov. 2012. http//www. dnr. state. mn. us/mammals/wolves/mgmt. hypertext markup language.