Sunday, March 31, 2019

America And World War Ii History Essay

the States And World contend Ii History set ab come forthThe objective of this h aged back is to subject the chief throws of the Good struggle legend to bright analysis in the hope of pre direct an additional pictorial picture, 1 that does not demean the achievement of the United States and of lib sequencel democ rich nevertheless that at the same time does not diminish the stress, suffering, problems, and failures inescapably faced by a familiarity at contend. The war was easily for the economy. It was liberating for women. It was a war of tanks and airplanes a cleaner war than World War I. Americans were united. Soldiers were proud. It was a time of prosperity, sound incorruptity, and power. scarce according to historian Michael Adams, our stock is distorted, and it has left us with a misleading regular(a) dangerous legacy. contend umpteen of our communal assumptions ab divulge the block, Adams argues that our experience of World War II was positive but s ame(p)wise disturbing, creating problems that continue to plague us to twenty-four hours.Michael C Adams has contributed to The Best War Ever America and World War II as an origin. Michael C. C. Adams, a professor of history at Northern Kentucky University, is the author of The hooty Adventure Male Desire and the Coming of World War I (1990).Much of the imports of WWII has been mythologized not merely by Hollywood and governance propaganda, and over the years this mythology has been perpetuated by those who lived through the war themselves. Michael C. C. Adams has want to parade these stories for what they are, fabrication and oversimplifications, and provide the basic facts that facilitate a truer understanding of WWII and the area wide cultural changes surrounding it, both before and after the war itself.In chapter whiz, Mythmaking and the War, Adams sets out the myth itself, as correctd by Hollywood dramatization, government propaganda, advertisement agencies, and th e revised memories of those who stayed business firm, as well as those who fought in the war itself. The war became Americas golden age, a peak in the flavor of society when e genuinelything worked out and the good guys definitely got a happy oddment. (Adams, 2) The WWII era came to serve a tendency to be the byg unitary and only(a) age which America once was, and if worked hard enough for, could be again. It was, in a sense, Americas garden of Eden, the time and place where in all things were right. Of course, this was a manufactured ideal, what Adams calls a practicable past. In creating a usable past, we seek formulas to apply in solution to twenty-four hour periods problems. Americans believe that WWII proved one rule above all other(a)sit is normally better to fight than to talk. (Adams, 4) To make WWII into the best war ever, we must resign out the area bombings and other questionable aspects while exaggerating the good things. The war myth is distorted not so a lo t in what it says as in what it doesnt say. (Adams, 7) This applies not only to the war itself, but wishwise to the home front.Chapter two, No Easy Answers, begins the process of deconstructing the myth, and demonstrating that the events leading up to WWII began long before the Treaty of Versailles, and the ramifications of WWII will last much longer than the generation that fought it. Adams lays out the frame of the complex political, cultural and economic histories of each of body politics which would break d give birth problematic in WWII, and shows that in that respect was no obvious point at which one decision would claim prevented the war from happening. Taken in condition, the actions each rural area took leading up to WWII make sense. Adams asks, what could support been done differently? Apparently, not much appeasement didnt work in Europe, and determent didnt work in Asia. There really were no easy answers.Chapter three, The Patterns of War, 1939-1945 lays out th e way in which each nation fought the war, with a tonic speed and brutality make possible by technology and the remoteness of the enemy. Chapter four, The American War Machine, demonst order how the tools were created and sent into battle, and how the soldiers and organization of each army differed, for better or worsened. Chapter five, Overseas, abridgments the realities of life for the American soldier both in the European and Pacific theatres, while chapter six, home(a) front Changes, does the same for those who stayed home. These chapters invite one unifying purpose to de elegant the reality of the WWII era, expose the complex history and actors, and above all, disabuse us of the reigning WWII mythos. Chapter seven, A New World, takes us one step except and debunks the myth that re shimmering GIs read in effect(p)ed quickly without lasting physical ailments and emotional traumas and into a society awaiting them with open arms, friendly smiles and loving families.Above all e lse, Adams has provided an interest and easily accessible framework with which one can examine WWII and evaluate the complexities and realities of the era. While his history is intentionally skeleton and uncomplicated by sample and detail, it does achieve its purpose. By identifying the mythos and realities of WWII, the Good War can be appreciated for what it actually was an ugly, brutal and ultimately necessary war.Adams says that the existence of the WWII distortions is not solo the fault of the American public. It is excessively the fault of the Federal Government and the media. The government censored controversial material during the war and only delivered to the public detail that were uplifting and beneficial to the cause. The media also used the war to its advantage, promoting products using roles to the war.Adams also goes into detail the Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome the soldiers endured during the war.The curb does go into just about diachronic cards of WWII. Most of Adams references though were secondary references. I would have wish to see him use to a abundanter extent primary sources which would have provided to a dandyer extent authenticity and credibility to the allow. I do recommend the entertain if you are look for a quick read about WWII, but if you are tone for a military history about WWII, this is not the intensity for you.3- gutter F. Kasson, nonsensical THE MILLION CONEY ISLAND AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURYAmusing the one thousand thousand dassie Island at the Turn of the Century (American Century)Amusing the Million examines the historical context in which Coney Island made its disposition as an re debut place and shows how Americas changing brotherly and economic conditions formed the basis of a new kitty culture.Exploring it afresh in this way, John Kasson shows Coney Island no longer as the object of nostalgia but as a hail of ultramodernityand the both(prenominal) another(prenominal) photographs, lith ographs, engravings, and other reproductions with which he amplifies his text support this lively thesis. afterward studying the whole book my point of analysis on this book is that In these times, when entertainers bare body parts normally kept virtuously covered, it is hard to believe the cover photo of this book was considered rather racy a century ago. It shows a line of girls on the beach at Coney Island where the skirts on their swimsuits have been raised to reveal the shorts underneath. Considering that they also appear to have full-length tights on underneath the shorts, to modern eyes, they look overdressed. There were many fond commentators at the end of the ordinal century that argued that the egalitarian complaisant structure of Coney Island was debasing the affectionate fabric of the nation.As Coney Island was the near conspicuous example of the spectacular sociable changes victorious place in the United States. By the turn of the century, the people were genera lly no longer rural tillers of the soil, having been transform into urban tillers of the machines. Furthermore, by this time, the social distinctions between the upper and other dividees were being blurred. As the author points out, at Coney Island, many of the stiff social restrictions came down. flock who differently would not speak to each other became friendly and overlap rides, beach water and other amusements.The members of the compressed urban society starve simple and inexpensive recreation and Coney Island provided it. Therefore, as Kasson points out so well, it was a phenomenon that grew out of a social need and in many ways served as a social release. People could, for a very small fee, go away their crowded dwellings and engage in a day of escape. Everyone was equal on the rides and the beaches, so at least at that location, social distinctions disappeared.Until I read this book, I had never considered the amusement park as a barometer for social change. However, i t is now clear that Coney Island was a metaphor for a dramatic change in the social fabric of the nation and from this book, you can learn many of the details.These were all much the same in nature, differing mainly in size and duration. Their reason for being and the reason or them be sexual climax a thing of the past is all the same.The book suggests that they started in the mid-1800s is stretching the point slightlywhat as Fairs of all types were around for many centuries and only differed in how big they were, how far people travelled to them ,how much new inventions became incorporated and how long they lasted.It seems that throughout history people love to gather for just about any reason, but generally some sort of amusement along with the hope of seeing something new. Thus there were Races, Exhibitions of animals, crafts, products for prizes or sale, Auctions, Magic shows, Plays, Sporting events and on and on ad infantilism.This happened at Stonehenge and before, at the R oman Collisium, and Religious Celebrations. It didnt take much to create an event heck, even a Hanging was enough to get a long crowd out.The same sort of thing continues today. So instead of taking the Subway to Coney Island or some other Amusement park we go to the corking Theme Parks, National Parks, Sporting Events, Concerts, Casinos, Vegas, Nashville, Ski Hills, Cruises, or even events and locations around the world, much(prenominal) as World Fairs or the Olympics.The old adage The more things change, the more they obtain the same applies to Amusement Parks, just as it does to everything else.The grandest change is in the ease of travel, the amount of usable income available, and the introduction of TV where everything can be brought right into the living room. That doesnt leave much but the Thrill Rides, the Smells and Sounds, the Crowds and the Outdoors but thats coming too.The Canadian National Exhibition continues to run for 3 weeks in August merely it gets poorer an d tackier every year and who knows how much longer it will continue.Amusement position that began to exist during the turn of the century served as venues for fun and excitement as well as helped to release the repressed from the gentility of the Victorian shape up of the 19th century. John Kasson examines the social and cultural ramifications that occurred in American society in his book, AMUSING THE MILLIONS CONEY ISLAND AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. In his study, Kasson shows how the American landscape became playgrounds, especially in New York, which extended the use of inexpert billet, New Yorks Central Park, and expositions that commemorated and celebrated the American historical past, Chicagos Columbian exposition of 1893. They magnified the cornerstones and building blocks of the city, and the behavior that was exhibited with the rising middle class, which attracted a mass audience. The city became cosmopolitan and modern where many engaged and frolicked, and helped to un latch social, racial, and economic boundaries that were bestowed upon many individuals they also helped to rejuvenate cities through urban planning.Indeed, Kasson explores the world of imagination. The amusements ran the gamut from a Barnum and Bailey cash dispenser to reveling along the boardwalk amongst exotic and unusual exhibits that coveted Coney Islands Luna Park and never-never land Park. And within the text Kasson highlights those who helped architect this unrestrained environment of excess, much(prenominal) as Frederick Law Olmstead, Daniel H. Burnham, George C. Tilyou, Frederic Thompson, crowd Gibbons Huneker, and Maxim Gorky. Undoubtedly these were elaborate and spacious constructed palatial playgrounds of pleasure full of materialism and consumption where many gathered for pure utopian enjoyment. According to Kasson, these amusements also served as an outlet for artists and painters whose works did not particularly belong in museums. However, they reflected the modern ist and realist genres of the art world before they came into vogue, and they show technological, urban, populous, egalitarian, erotic, hedonist, dynamic, and culturally diverse images that the public were not accustomed to (88).Overall, this is an interesting rouse down nostalgic memory lane. Through the revealing pictures and detailed narrative, Kasson shows readers how Coney Island at the turn became a form of liberation for an array of classes. In essence, this is a good source to refer to when studying or instruction about the American Dream as it relates to amusement parks that transcended social and cultural change in American society.4-John Kenneth Galbraith, THE GREAT CRASH, 1929The cracking force of 1929The Great Crash, 1929is a book written byJohn Kenneth Galbraithand published in 1954 it is an economic history of the lead-up to the paries pass Crash of 1929. The book argues that the 1929 stock market split was precipitated by rampant speculation in the stock mark et, that the common denominator of all conceptional episodes is the belief of participants that they can become rich without work and that the tendency towards recurrent speculative orgy serves no recyclable purpose, but rather is deeply damaging to an economy.It was Galbraiths belief that a good knowledge of what happened in 1929 was the best safeguard against its recurrence.Galbraith wrote the book during a break from working on the manuscript of what would becomeThe Affluent Society. Galbraith was asked byArthur M. Schlesinger Jr.if he would write the definitive work on theGreat depressionthat he would then use as a reference source for his own intended work on Roosevelt. Galbraith chose to concentrate on the days that ushered in the depression. I never enjoyed writing a book more indeed, it is the only one I remember in no sense as a labor but as a joy.Galbraith received much praise for his work, including his humorous observations of homo versed behavior during the speculat ive stock market blab out and subsequent crash. The publication of the book, which was one of Galbraiths basic bestsellers, coincided with the 25th anniversary of the crash, at a time when it and theGreat Depressionthat followed were still raw memories and stock price levels were only then acquire to pre-crash levels. Galbraith considered it the useful task of the historian to keep fresh the memory of such crashes, the fading of which he correlates with their re-occurrence.For the purpose of the sum-up and analysis phase of this book I thought that the Republican Great Depression of 1929-1939 has been an unending source of mystery, fascination, and disinformation for the past four generations. As youre reading these words, theres a huge force on by conservative think-tanks and wealthy political activists to reinvent the history, suggesting that Roosevelt protracted the Depression or that New Deal programs were ineffective. At the same time, kinfolk like David Sirota are val iantly pushing back with actual facts and statistics, boonation that Roosevelts New Deal was startlingly effective, particularly when compared with the Republican policies of 1920-1929 that formed the bubble that crashed in 1929, and the Republican failures to deal with its consequences during the last three years of the Herbert hoover administration (1929-1933).To really understand what brought about the great crash, however, its almost useful to read an historical narrative written by one of the worlds leading(prenominal) economists when that world-changing event was still fresh in his and his readers minds.The Great Crashis that book, starting written by Galbraith in 1953-54 (and published in 1955) and updated for modern readers in 1997.From this book I like to discuss some points in its summary phase. From the IntroductionThe people who remained sane and quiet Extracts fromThe Great Crash 1929, John Kenneth Galbraith, First Published 1955, pageboy 27 Even in such a time of madness as the late twenties, a great many man in Wall Street remained quite sane. But they also remained very quiet. The sense of responsibility in the financial corporation for the community as a whole is not small. It is nearly nil. whitethornbe this is inherent. In a community where the primary concern is making money, one of the necessary rules is to live and let live. To speak out against madness may be to ruin those who have succumbed to it. So the wise in Wall Street are nearly always silent. The foolish thus have the field to themselves. None rebukes them.From Chapter 1 A Year to Remember Opportunities for the social historianExtracts fromThe Great Crash 1929, John Kenneth Galbraith, First Published 1955, Page 26In the autumn of 1929 the mightiest of Americans were, for a brief time, revealed as human beings. Like most humans, most of the time, they did some very foolish things. On the while, the great the earlier reputation for omniscience, the more serene the previou s idiocy, the greater the foolishness now exposed. Things that in other times were concealed in a heavy facade of dignity now stood exposed, for the panic suddenly, close obscenely, snatched this facade away. We are seldom vouchsafed a glance behind this hindrance in our society the counterpart of the Kremlin walls is the thickly stuffed shirt. The social historian must always be alert to his opportunities, and there have been few like 1929.From Chapter 7 Things Become More Serious Things keep getting worse Extracts fromThe Great Crash 1929, John Kenneth Galbraith, First Published 1955, Page cxxx In the autumn of 1929 the New York Stock Exchange, under roughly its present constitution, was 112 years old. During this lifetime it had seen some difficult days. On 18 phratry 1873, the firm of Jay Cooke and Company failed, and, as a more or slight direct result, so did fifty-seven other Stock Exchange firms in the next few weeks. On 23 October 1907, call money rates reached one hundr ed and twenty-five per cent in the panic of that year. On 16 September 1922 the autumn months are the off-season in Wall Street a bomb exploded in front of Morgans next door, violent death thirty people and injuring a hundred more.A common feature of all these earlier troubles was that, having happened, they were over. The worst was reasonably recognizable as such. The funny feature of the great crash of 1929 was that the worst continued to worsen. What looked one day like the end proved on the next day to have been only the beginning. Nothing could have been more ingeniously designed to increase the suffering, and also to ensure that as few as possible escape the common misfortune. The fortunate speculator who had funds to answer the first borderline call presently got another and equally urgent one, and if he met that there would still be another. In the end all the money he had was extracted from him and lost. The man with the smart money, who was safely out of the market w hen the first crash came, naturally went back in to pick up bargains. The bargains then suffered a ruins fall. Even the man who waited out all of October and all of November, who saw the pile of trading return to normal and saw Wall Street become as placid as a produce market, and who then bought common stocks would see their value drop to a third or a fourth of the purchase price in the next twenty-four months. The Coolidge bull market was a remarkable phenomenon. The ruth littleness of its liquidation was, in its own way, equally remarkable.5-Ronald G. Walters, AMERICAN REFORMERS, 1815-1860American Reformers, 1815-1860, Revised EditionWith American Reformers, Walters has make up a fine synthesis of secondary literature on the varied antebellum crystallise movements. In doing so, he argues that the ameliorate impulse emerges out of evangelical Protestantism but by the Civil War takes a more secular turn more involved in legislating social controls than converting the hearts o f individuals. As he develops this argument he addresses the different forms that this reform impulse took and organizes the book thematically. He discusses in successive chapters utopian movements and secular communitarians, abolition, the womens movement and the peace movement, temperance, health reform and spiritualism, working mans reform, and institutional reform, into which he groups mental hospitals, prisons and schools.Walters demonstrates the secularization of reform in the realm of communitarian societies. Thus, the early nineteenth century utopian settlements that often emerged out of pietistic impulses gave way to more secular experiments in social engineering such as Owenism, or as in the case of Oneida, how a once religious community endured only as a commercial venture. Similarly he shows institutions such as asylums wove their religious inspiration with the science of the times but like prisons and almshouses became holding pens for outcasts rather than places for he aling and reform.Walters also situates the emergence of reform in the particular circumstances of antebellum America. He argues that the emergence of the middle class created made it possible for people to devote time to reform, and those technological advances in printing made it possible for people to actually make a living as an agitator. He also argues that reform helped shape the individuation of the emerging middle class. This point comes through particularly clearly in his chapter on working mans reform.Walters synthesis suffers from its grand scope and short length. In it he sacrifices a certain amount of detail and analysis for space and clarity. The section on utopian movements, for example, traces the personalities of the major reformers and a brief outline of the community that followed without in-depth analysis. Throughout the book quotations from primary sources would have been helpful in giving a feel for the particular movement under discussion. The drop of primary source material allows Walters to sacrifice documentation, and the reader sometimes wishes for some assistance in discerning the origin or fuller evolution of a particular point. To his credit, Walters provides a good bibliographical essay at the end, but the lack of documentation sometimes proves frustrating and thus interrupts the otherwise smooth flow in the text. Nonetheless, American Reformers is a very unmortgaged and useful synthesis of the secondary sources on antebellum reform. As such, it is a helpful and welcome addition to the field.In my mind, this is an introductory text, albeit a fine one. Walters is very accessable, he tries to include necessary historical perspective and any(prenominal) cultural information he deems to be valuable to the story hes sexual congress in each chapter. And while each chapter is a story of a different movement or people, he also demonstrates those things these groups have in common. I wont spoil it for you, but at the least of it, they were all idealists who thought to affect the world around them.Material and political changes transformed America at a dizzying pace in the 1820s and 1830s. The expansion of industrialization, the creation of roads and canals to connect manufacturers to new markets, westward migration, a prolonged period of economic depression following the panic of 1837, and the broad(a)ening of voting rights triggered considerable social upheavals. Reform movements were often attempts to cope with the consequences of these changes. Some movements wanted reform of institutions like prisons, schools, and asylums. Others looked to individual regeneration to transform the whole society. Some reformers move attention to a particular groups suffering Richard Henry DanasTwo long time before the Mast(1840), for example, pressed for expanded legal rights for sailors. Others, like the founders of Brook Farm, sought radical and universal reform.A powerful source of reform emerged from the plump for Grea t Awakening, the religious revivals sweeping the nation from the 1790s through the 1820s. Like the Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s, this series of revivals emphasized individual, often emotional religious experiences. notwithstanding unlike the first period of revival, the Second Great Awakening had an even broader impact. The disestablishment of religion in the early national period and the deism associated with Americas existence fathers (that is, their belief in the power of reason and the existence of a unconditional Creator and their skepticism about supernatural religious explanations) seemed to threaten the nations Protestant moral foundation. Moreover, many Christians attributed certain social ills (drinking, dueling, disregard for the Sabbath, and the like) to Chris-tianitys decline. Ministers such as Lyman Beecher (1775-1863) and Charles Grandison Finney (1792-1875) responded with messages about wickedness, conversion, and the imminent return of Christ. Moving a way from the Calvinist doctrines (such as predestination) associated with the initial Great Awakening, they preached individual moral agency and personal salvation, moral improvement and perfection, and a responsibility to hasten the coming of Gods Kingdom.These religious ideas contributed to the propensity for reform and creation of voluntary benevolent societies such as the American Education Society (1815), American Bible Society (1816), and American pathway Society (1825). These organizations distributed religious literatures, but their members also led efforts to stem Sabbath-breaking, drinking, and other forms of vice. Various female moral reform societies focused on ending prostitution, sexual exploitation, and the sexual double standard. The ostensibly moral concern with sexual vice also helped justify the not-so-pious demand for reform literature featuring move and wronged women in texts like Maria MonksAwful Disclosures(1836) and George FostersNew York by Gas-Light(1850 ).evangelistic reformers also played important roles in other reform movements. Theodore Dwight dyers mignonette (1803-1895), a disciple of Finney, began his career distributing tracts and preaching against strong drink. In 1829 weld shifted his efforts to the campaign against slavery and authored two antislavery classics,The Bible against Slavery(1837), which dismantled biblical pro-slavery arguments, andAmerican Slavery As It Is(1839), the text that inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) to writeUncle Toms confine(1851-1852).Evangelical reform spread popular literature as tracts, sermons, sunshine school books, and temperance testimonies. The revivals also had an important influence on developments in literary style. Religious writings became more emotional and imaginative, formally less rigid, and theologically less rigorous. Antebellum religious texts began to rely on pictural narratives to illustrate, edify, and entertain. This new religious style, as David S. Reynolds calls it in his studyBeneath the American Renaissance(p. 15), reshaped not only evangelical writing but also the style of liberal reformers, popular writers, and transcendentalists.6-James M McPherson, ABRAHAM LINCOLNAbraham capital of NebraskaIn honor of the bicentennial of capital of Nebraskas birth, renowned Civil War scholar James M. McPherson has written a rattling(prenominal) brief biography of our 16th President. This book will be a wonderful source for beginners to study Lincoln and will serve as a good framework for larger works, like David Herbert DonaldsLincoln.This book covered the important aspects of Lincolns life from his birth and childhood in Kentucky and Indiana to his coming to Illinois, to his administration and death. McPherson discussed Lincolns tarnished relationship with his father and his wonderful relationship with his step-mother, which presented a more personal side of the man.Though short, this book does a great job of discussing Lincolns life in the larger context of American history. McPherson summarized the important moments and events during his life and provided a wonderful look at the war and its effect on him.True to his scholarly reputation, McPherson used great sources for this little biography, including theCollected Works of LincolnandLincoln at cooper Unionto name a couple. In addition to using great primary and secondary sources, McPherson provided a bibliographic essay that provided a great synthesis of the historiography of Lincoln and where it may be heading in the coming year.There are many things to like about this book. It is a well-researched, but brief biography that will reach a wide audience. The reputation of James McPherson as a scholar lends great weight to the genuineness of this biography.Abraham Lincolnis a wonderful beginning to the scholarly celebration of the Lincoln bicentennial.- James McPherson has emerged as one of Americas finest historians.Battle Cry of Freedom, his Pulitzer Prize-winning account of the Civil War, was a national bestseller that Hugh Brogan, inThe New York Times platter Review, called history writing of the highest order. In that ledger, McPherson gathered in the broad sweep of events, the political, social, and cultural forces at work during the Civil War era. Now, inAbraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution, he offers a series of thoughtful and engaging essays on aspects of Lincoln and the war that have seldom been discussed in depth.McPherson again displays his keen insight and sterling prose as he examines several critical themes in American history. He looks closely at the Presidents role as Commander-in-Chief of the Union forces, showing how Lincoln forged a national military strategy for victory. He explores the importance of Lincolns great rhetorical skills, uncovering howthrough parables and figurative languagehe was uniquely able to communicate both the purpose of the war and a new meaning of liberty to the people of the North. In another section, McPherson examines the Civil War as a Second American Revolution, describing how the Republican Congress elected in 1860 passed an astonishing blitz of new laws (rivaling the first hundred days of the New Deal), and how the war not only destroyed the social structure of the old South, but radically alter the balance of power in America, ending 70 years of southerly power in the national government.The Civil War was the single most transforming and defining experience in American history, and Abraham Lincoln remains the most important figure in the pantheon of our mythology. These graceful essays, written by one of America are leading historians, offer fresh and unusual perspectives on both.From my analysis point of view the book itself in hardcover is a joy to hold with its compact size, readable typeface and bound-in ribbon bookmark. Whoever worked on this project obviously did it as a labor of love. They worked the details on this one.You cant honestly compare t his work to others like Carl Sandbergs Lincoln or With Malice towards None or even my nice coffee send back book of photographs taken of Lincoln. This work COMPLEMENTS those more comprehensive volumes. That said, it is not incomplete. It does an glorious job of hitting the hundreds of high and low points in Lincolns too brief life. The pace moves quickly and precisely along so that you never have the feeling that youre being written down to if thats the phrase Im looking for. This one has NOT been dumbed down for the reader.Personally I see this smaller volume as an annual read

Charles Dickens Narrative Styles

Charles hellion write up StylesAs the voice of a fictional and, sometimes, nonfictional literary work, the cashier is often the central feature in literary works and is prone a issuance of responsibilities. Depending on how the bank clerk is attached to the particular horizontal surface or book, these roles include helping to lend a voice to the authors thoughts as hearty as found the story and ensure focus, deliver the plot, and admit perspective. Narration dissolve be delivered by either indirect talk of or all-knowing archives based on the authors intent, providing a regulate of techniques that add credibility to the story or lead the subscriber to misgiving or suspicion the teller, depending on the contri thationisation, language, and plot line that is being gived. The teller can be the main character plainly they can in addition be a minor character, a combination of characters, or blush serve an omniscient role as a story advertiseer who is non part of the story.On a simple and straightforward level, both books utilise the fibber as a delegacy of reminding the analyseer slightly the plot, enclose the story and focusing the action due to their serialised nature. In this elan, both narrators condone gaps in time and action, speaking to the referee and helping elicit their thoughts of what had previously happened. both(prenominal) serve as directors in terms of guiding the ref through and through the story and uncovering what they need to be seen or what they want the reader to ponder in terms of the intention of meaning whilst nonetheless being able to establish boundaries around what is to be inferred from reading the tale (Brooks, 503). On a deeper level further explored deep down this paper, both narrators appoint the overriding theme of Victorian literature that deuce has made renowned in terms of the weak supporting the strong as well as the poor satiating the wealthy (Bloom, 155). In this way, the narrator also serves as a bend to hold up and guide the reader through the construction of the story but also a construction of the homophile self.As the narrator of Great Expectations, place takes on a number of roles as he moves from a young child to mature man, providing a humanistic touch to Dickenss often bleak and despairing tales. The reader can then relate to in these terms of following his expectations and doubts roughly how he will fare in animation as well as as genuineing his signified experience of values placed against those of company by reflecting on what he is learning rough himself. Overall, as a narrator, it is fool who serves to connect the models of character and levelt within the plot, linking these together in a manner that helps the reader stay meaningfully connected to the story (Gissing, 95). In this way, Dickens uses Pip as a way of making a description round ordination, morality, and class struggles with an overriding narrative that experiences greed, wealth, and power whilst trying to abide hardworking, ethical, and caring. sort of of making the commentary directly, Dickens establishes the narrator as a way of disassociating himself as the author in the readers mind from the story so that Pip becomes the translator for what Dickens is trying to communicate to the reader (Miller, 249).What sets the narrative isolated in Great Expectations is the complex earn in terms of Mr. Pirrip, the self-aggrandising Pip, reflecting on his life as a poor boy and doing so from the perspective of a mature and somewhat successful businessperson. He seems to tell the story in a calm and reflective tone that does not appear to be angry with his childhood despite having expectations in offspring that went unfulfilled. Even in retelling situations that were rather traumatic and cruel, Pip remains detached. This illustrates how Dickens uses this tone to build sympathy and create a distinction in the midst of the bad society and the good nature of some human beings. He provides a matter-of-fact tone to what could be considered a serious commentary on society of the solar day. This can be seen as he states, I tell this lightly, but it was no light thing for me (Dickens, 235).This perceive of drug withdrawal and isolation from previous events illustrates how a narrator can be positioned in a way that shows how all human akinityships are not crystal clear and rational in terms of communication, interaction, and level of meaning but that life is a much more than(prenominal) complex and illusive set of actions and mindsets (Vande Kieft, 325). thither are also times where the limitation of what the narrator chooses to relay or how it is being relayed will greatly impact on the readers reaction to what the narrator has to say, thereby influencing the reader to potentially draw certain conclusions. This can oddly be the case for Pip as Dickens tries to use the fib to explain the movement from self-awareness to se lf-acceptance that expectations are often replaced by doubt when society has the power and cruelty to control ones existence (Dessner, 436). Throughout all of his novels, including heavily Times and Great Expectations, Dickens posits it clear that he would like to remain detached from the story and the narrator he has created, somewhat inferring his own distrust of the narrator but accognitionment that the device helps him achieve his intent as a writer (Daldry, 99).The fact that he seems to change from making assumptions about his childhood to a defensive tone that illustrates confidence in his retention and his feelings positions Pip as a more trustworthy narrator in terms of making him more human and akin to the reader (Daldry 1987,141). Yet, even the desire to trust Pips perspective is taken off-balance when the reader discovers later on in the story that they have been intentionally deceived about certain episodes. In this way, Dickens is able to put the reader in the same f rame of mind as the innocent and nave Pip who, as a child, had considered certain people trustworthy only to find that he had been deceived. In this way, the narrative becomes a reflective device that Dickens uses to ca-ca the reader feel what he is trying to explain about society and the overlook of morality and integrity in the gentlemans gentleman. This is also carried out through Pips sense of that helplessness over his situation based on how overwhelmed the other characters make him feel. This adds to the mood and emotion of the novel which is emitted through Pip and to the reader (Woloch, 178). This sense of being overwhelmed may lead Pip to be somewhat undependable as the other characters dominate him and tend to shape his self and the readers sense of his genius and character (Woloch, 178).The continued focus of Dickens on the concept of how personality forms (Morgentaler, 1) is also explored through the narrative techniques of unuttered Times. Like Pip, the anon. narr ator in Hard Times is also used as a device to help the reader feel a sense of isolation of self set against a harsh society (Miller, 251) as well as express an individuals sense of self in relation to society and in relation to other individuals (Miller 1958, 225). There is a similar realisation with this narrator in terms of explaining what he had perceived as reality that, upon further existence and exploration, was not correct nor was it logical, leading him to retrospect himself and his life (Dickens, 29).Using this technique in both books is also a way for Dickens to lend a deeper perspective for the reader in terms of providing what may seem like a confusion or fragmentation of slews by the two narrators (Shires, 18). This fragmentation can be seen in how Pip and the unidentified narrator tend to change their minds about conglomerate actions or situations that they are relating as well as becoming more emotional at times whilst other situations are explained calmly and ra tionally, move the reader through a kaleidoscope of perspectives about various events in the book. In this way, Victorian literature utilised the narrator as a device for moving away from Realist literature that was focused on reconciliation and wholeness. Instead, books by Dickens and others during the time pushed the boundaries of what the reader could handle by providing a narrator who could guide and frame the readers journey through which perspectives were tested, altered, or replaced by other (Shires, 18).This open sense of the valet and society provides an omniscient sense to the narration within Great Expectations, which one critic described as a first-person narrator trapped within third person narrative world (Woloch, 178). In understanding the differences in narrative technique, first person narrative makes a qualitative distinction between the human figure who narrates the story (and it is thus presented as an agent or subject of perception) and the characters he writ es about (mere objects of perception) (Woloch, 178). In this case, Pip is narrating his perception of his own character or self, which leads him to continually attempt to detach himself. The reader then determines what the mature Pip is in reality thinking about in terms of his life, his connection to society, and his sense of self.However, it is within Hard Times where Dickens more loosely uses an alternative personality to cover up his direct communication to the reader in the form of an indirect discourse and the use of omniscient narration. In this manner, there is a framed structure because the narrator is telling a story that patently has a diverse protagonist than the narrator (Woloch, 178). This was a way to ventilate his perspective on political and social issues of his time even though his intent was for the reader to focus on the creation of an omniscient narrator who is simply helping the reader look beyond the fictional world and draw conclusions about real society and the one within Hard Times (Watts, 135). As an omniscient narrator, there is also a vagueness that is enounce in terms of how situations are described or what they are to signify in terms of making an inference to the political and educational systems of the day (Watts, 138).Whilst there are many places in which it would seem as though the narrator would come out and direct the reader to a certain belief, such as destroying mills, it is never said it is only inferred (Watts, 139). Hence, the conclusions based on the re-examination and evaluation of self through the omniscient narrator is left wing more up to the reader in Hard Times than the more direct, but still somewhat caged, responses of Pip in Great Expectations. Whilst seemingly left up to the reader, there is way of life to consider the possibility that, despite room for interpretation that an omniscient perspective allows the reader to draw their own conclusions, Dickens still seems to allow both narrators only enoug h license to review certain teaching by which to manipulate control of the readers point of view thereby inciting a certain sympathy or contempt for different groups of people within society (Boege, 90).This same perspective was also say by a researcher who said, In a sense, the whole finding of the novel is to convince us of a number of equivalences, most curiously that between the educational philosophy of Gradgrind and the economic theory and practice of the virgin industrialism (Bloom, 120). Leaving the narration to be conducted by a somewhat anonymous voice is Dickenss way of not focusing the reader on the real elements of character of the narrator but keeping the reader solely set on understanding the purpose of the novel. In this way, the reader is connected to the information provided by the anonymous reader in an unemotional manner that does not bring personal interest into the controversial subjects of the novel, including the grinding ugliness of industrial developm ent the abstract theory of Utilitarianism shallow self-interest the anti-social force of the capitalistic and trade unions (Hosbaum, 174). In many ways, information and perspectives about these subjects are provided in a detached manner somewhat similar to Pip who seemed, at times, to be narrating someone elses life.In both novels the narrators attempt in a personal and direct way with Pip in Great Expectations and with an omniscient manner in Hard Times to tell the reader about society and how what is ideal and moralistic is not necessarily what reality involves, particularly in light of the individuals who seemingly are not able to make a difference in terms of overcoming society with their expectations of how things should be (Jordan, 70). Both transmit Dickenss messages about the struggles of humanity against a powerful and greedy society (Jordan, 78). In both of Dickenss texts, the narrators provide the tools by which the reader can view the context of what Dickens wants to c ommunicate so as to transmute the relevancy of the social and political messages that appear in these books (Walsh, 36). Whilst the information within the texts is viewed as fiction, Dickens employs his narrators to provide a level of authenticity, honesty, and relevance to the fiction by which the reader can glean experience of specific events and issues that have occurred in the real world as opposed to just being viewed as fictional events (Walsh, 36).As one critical analysis of narrative techniques noted, The knowledge offered by fictionis not primarily specific knowledge of what is (or was), but of how human affairs work, or,how to make sense of them-logically, evaluatively, emotionally (Walsh, 36). Hence, through an omniscient presence as well as through the presentation of a sympathetic narrator like Pip, the reader can make connections to these books, which helps step up the contextual effect that Dickens is trying to create. The narrators are a way to connect the cognitiv e movees of the author and the reader, thereby passing on knowledge of reality but doing so through a fictional process that is guided and controlled by the narrator. Throughout both books, Dickens attempts to take the reader into the mind of his characters, himself, and society as a way to connect the reader to the events and issues of his day whilst still trying to provide a number of perspectives by which to humanise the story and to build sympathy for the points he is attempting to make about the real world.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Designer Duties Arising from Health and Safety Legislation

ornamentalist Duties Arising from health and gumshoe LegislationSummary of formulaer dutiesdetermine twain possible dangers that might arise when carrying divulge social system and maintenance in futurefind germane(predicate) solutions to deal with the hazards protest PSDP about solid control measures, jut presumptions or remaining risk of exposures to get wind they atomic number 18 handled in the sentry duty and Health Plancollaborate with PSDP, PSCS and differentwise tropeersresponsible for vivacious safety and health plan or safety shoot find out the counselling from PSDP or PSCSremind client on the necessity of PSDP view start to be constructed is safe and will maintain safely as well fulfil the needs of health and safety legislation, according to the Safety Health and Welf ar at operate on Act 2005Defining radiation pattern and goalers infra the Regulations, design wreak implys the formation of drawings, explodeiculars, specializedations, calcula tions, the preambles and preliminaries of bills of quantities, where we can find specifications or other expressions of purpose from them, in accordance with which a bulge, or whatsoever check or component of a cast off, is to be carried out.The design subprogram is the passage of developing and preparing a design of a labour from initial ideas up to a more precise specification, which often implicate different aggroups and handle at sundry(a) degrees throughout the construe. springs involve organisations or individuals who responsible for the design go of a project, including the design of unstable whole caboodle. It is possible for them to make decisions that significantly reduce the hazards to safety and health when twirl is on-going and during subsequent use and maintenance. potentiality designers from various professions argonarchitects, civil and structural engineers, expression services consultants, building surveyors, landscape architects and other design practices and individuals who assist or responsible for analysing, calculating, preceding(prenominal) design work, figure, detailing, specifying and preparing bills of quantities for pull workMechanical, Electrical, Chemical and other related engineers who obscure in the projectperson who determine or modify a design, or who specify the application of certain work methods or specific materials, including client, temporary work designers, interior designers, specializer subcontractors who contribute to design work and complex body part materials selectionExamples of temporary flora are trench shoring, scaffolding, propping, works platforms, gangways and recover stairs or ladders.Employers or the head of design team are designers.Areas of responsibility between various designers on a project should be outlined precisely to prevent any overlap or gaps, which stimulate confusion or even possible danger. The duties relating to safety and health of each designer can be formed aft er outlining circumstance of responsibility for designers.Duties of DesignersAccording to Regulation 15(1), a designer is postulate to drive the general principles of prevention, germane(predicate) safety and health plan and safety file when working on design of a project.General Principles of Prevention down the stairs Regulation 15(1), designers must go out the General Principles of Prevention that are embed in Schedule 3 to the Safety, Health and Welfare at mold Act 2005 as well as other related Safety and Health Plan or Safety File. The Principles of Prevention are a hierarchy for reducing and eliminating risks.If applicable, the first thing to tackle in discourse safety and health on construction projects at design stage is to reduce and eliminate risks. Designers should consider existing risks in certain areas of the project and relate any possible new hazards bring forthd by design service for workers in construction areas, end users and the public.General Principle s of Prevention is used as a guide in reducing risks experienced during the construction process and after the project is completed. The measures in descending format of effectiveness arerisks preventionassessment of inevitable hazardsdealing with risks on site variant of work to the person working environment, equipment used for work, working systems, in mold to prevent repetitive jobs and health risksadaptation of working place to adept developmentreplacing risky elements, substances or working systems with those that less dodgyestablishment of prevention policy related to safety, health and wellbeing at work that consider about technology, social factors, working organisation, environment and conditionsprioritizing corporate protective measures over individual protective measuresproviding permit training and guidance to employeesBesides, designers shouldidentify any hazards in the designeliminate risks when applicable without introducing other higher risksevaluate and redu ce relaxation hazards by using risk assessment process of the design and prioritizing collective protection allow relevant selective avowation so that other designers, contractors and the PSDP are awake of identified residual hazards and able to take actionDesigners should be aware of hazards that likely cause injury. They must assess design proposals critically at tooth root, followed by throughout the design process, to identify the main construction safety and health issues, and include them into overall design process. The nature of risks varies depends on the type of project constructed.Designers should go over the hazards before informing the PSDP when developing the design, especially for design and build contracts, where in that respect is a large overlap in time between designing main elements of a project and the construction stage. Designers are recommended to participate in some safety and health meetings between the PSDP, PSCS, and contractor.Designers may have plow influence, and should consider other design considerations such aschoosing position and design of coordinates to prevent or minimise risks from known site hazards, e.g. buried services, avocation movements, contaminated groundminimise health hazards, e.g. use less dubious materials, prevent activities that emit dangerous substances, use materials can be handled easily, design block paved areas and access areasminimise safety hazards, e.g. work at height, fragile roof site, public areas or on motorways, flammable materials halt prefabrication to minimise dangerous work or in a controlled agencyprevent hazardous aspects that cause falling or injury if work at height is unavoidable, e.g. install permanent access in the beginning apply edge protectionwork on attempts that simplify the construction process, e.g. provide lifting points, weight and centre of gravity for heavy items on the items and drawings consider temporary works needed end bearings to slabs or beams that end- propping temporarily design connections to get word accuracy of assemblydesign to simplify maintenance and change jobs in future, e.g. concern on safe permanent access create access areas for future maintenance utilise windows that can be cleaned from interior design safe plant rooms create safe access for roofProviding InformationAccording to Regulation 15(b), a designer requires to return all related information in written form to project supervisors in order for them to conduct their duties. The details provided should be up-to-date so that the PSDP able to coordinate activities of designers involved in the project besides ensure the effectiveness of communication between PSCS and other duty-holders.Moreover, designers should provide relevant information on the design features that might cause risks in future construction work or maintenance. It will then be included into the Safety File by the PSDP.Completing design certificates is a way of record agreement with these duti es and keeping record of different stages throughout the design process. This ensure the safety of works carried out at different stages, besides assist in design examination and communication of design assumptions between various designers. Other method can too be used as an alternative for communication, record and verification of information related to the project.This will help the PSDP to fulfil his or her co-ordination role, and will to a fault demonstrate the designers compliance with the legislation. It is recommended that a permanent works designer should complete a permanent works design certificate with respect to the adequacy, in the context of safety and health, of their design.A permanent works designer is recommended to complete a permanent works design certificate related to the adequacy, in line with safety and health, of their design. short-lived works designers and contractors should locate their temporary works design according to the assumptions do in essenc es and construction sequence. The temporary works designer is recommended to complete a temporary works design certificate in order to supply sufficient information to all parties and ensure the structure can be built safely.Completed forms are handed over to the PSDP for verification in coordinate various designers. The forms are passed to the PSCS and other relevant person afterwards.Designer Co-operation chthonic the Regulation 15(2), designer is required to cooperate with the project supervisors for twain design process and construction stage as well as other designers, to allow them to comply with these Regulations. This can be done in terms of supplying relevant information, attending meetings or reviewing designs in order to improve the features of safety and health on site.Besides, designers ought to supply information for the PSDP to compile a Safety File. The information provided include details about plants or materials specified in the building, design assumptions, and relative calculations for the functioning, maintenance, and possible extension of the building.Designers should also determine demolition risks to the PSDP for inclusion in the Safety and Health File, these includesubstantial stored energy sources, including pre- or post-tensioned membersstableness demandsadjustments that altered the original structureComplying with DirectionsAccording to Regulation 15(c), designers should agree with all commands from the project supervisor for both design process and construction stage, which are expressed as express in Regulation 14 or 20, when applicable.It is possible for the PSDP or PSCS to entreat any designer to achieve Designers duties, so that the take care Supervisor may accomplish own duties under Construction Regulations 2006. Designers have to fulfil any reasonable requests from the PSDP or PSCS, including issues related to General Principles of Prevention or coordinating design activities among different designers.However, it is no t reasonable for designers to comply with directions that they not equal of doing, or not related and controlled by them, or legally agonistic from doing.If a designer failed to carry out a direction from project supervisor, the project supervisor must issue the direction in written form. When PSDP considers the designer failed to complete a confirmed written direction, they need to inform the Health and Safety Authority, Client and the person who failed to comply with the direction, by including a copy of the written direction and relevant response from the person in accordance with the direction.Once the Health and Safety Authority carry out investigation, it usually determines whether the parties involved have complied with their legal duties, before any enforcement actions are taken. The Authority will not conduct any negotiation or judgement between the parties. When an investigation commences, a designer or Project Supervisor may express any additional responses to the instr uction so that consideration is given to all relevant sides in the matter.Detailed furnish of informationUnder Regulation 15(3), a designer has to provide relevant information in written form to project supervisor flat when working on design of a project. This information ishazards to the safety, health and benefit of workers related to the project, including those stated in Schedule 1 to the RegulationsThe significant risks are dangerous or flammable substances involved in the design (epoxy grouts, fungicidal paints, isocyanates materials) particular problems and solutions structures that affect accessibility huge, heavy or cumbersome prefabricated objects which are difficult and risky to handle works that cannot be achieved by recipe methods of tying scaffolds aspects of design and sequences of constructing or disassembling that need to be noticeable at the design stage and significant to work safely unusual stability approachesincludes the type and areas to be covered by the project to allow project supervisor complies with the Regulationsrelevant details for project supervisor to include in the safety fileaware by the designer and the safe construction of design for the projectInformation given should be limited to project. In the context of structural stability, design is based onparticular erecting or construction sequencesetting up and removal of turned work, interim propping or formwork as well as the arrangementloading restrictions during constructionif contractor is not aware of the factors, designers (temporary or permanent works, specialist designers) should inform the PSCS, PSDP and contractors, to ensure construction proceeds safely according to the design intentIf a structure became unstable due to certain reason, the temporary works to ensure stability during the construction, alteration, or demolition of any part of the structure will be the pertinent information. Other relevant designers should be informed as well in order for them to t ake appropriate measures in their design to accommodate safety, health and welfare.Making Clients Aware of their DutiesUnder Regulation 15(4), designers should provide information to a contractor if there is no appointed project supervisor for the project according to the Regulation 15(3).Regarding to the duties of Client, a Client has no legal obligation to assign Project Supervisors in some circumstances. In this context, a designer has to provide information required under Regulation 15(3) to the appropriate contractor.According to Regulation 15(5), designers should immediately inform the client of the clients duties under Regulation 6 when they are not aware of the appointment of project supervisor in design process.Does any other Legislation Apply?Any other duty-holders who responsible to oversee a work place have to ensure the preservation of the safety, health and welfare of workers at working site, as well as others who affected by the on-going work on site.Designers may hav e other responsibilities besides those stated in the Construction Regulations. Safety Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 and other related legal provisions will also apply.Section 17 (2) of the Act also requires a designer of construction work to ensure that the projectis designed and qualified to be constructed safely without risking ones healthcan be maintained safely without risking ones health when in useobeys all respects, as appropriate, of the relevant statutory provisions.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Human Growth And Life Span Development Sociology Essay

Human Growth And spirit Span Development Sociology EssayThere argon eight characteristics in the life- track study (John Santrock, 2009). Development is a lifelong do by, whereby finishedout the whole process we pull up s bugger offs go through antithetic class angles which willing totallyow us to be exposed to disparate challenges in life. For example, a baby who is acquisition how to walk will need a lot of physical guidances deep d profess this compass point of raw material learning phase. A teenager in his/her adolescence phase tends to seek for more family recognize, as it is a transit give amongst universe a baby and an adult in which he/she will sacrifice to batchle both(prenominal)(prenominal) physical and e actional issues (eg. Puberty). A running(a) adult who disgraces the working society will tend to juggle both financial and marriage issues. An elderly who is non as feeble as how he/she used to be, will tend to be more touch on with health iss ues. So at different stages of our life, we have to handle different types of various issues throughout.Development depends on history and context. Each and e very somebodyistic is exposed to different physical and social environment that is why several(prenominal)(prenominal)ly of us is different and laughable in our avouch way. It is evenhandedly unachievable to have two individuals acquittance through a same serial publication of events at the same time and having the the same pace within that period of time. For example, two friends of mine who argon twins, whom may have been brought up chthonian the same conditions given at the point of time, have gr throw up and picked up different likings, interests etc as time goes by.Development is multidimensional, in which several factors like biological, cognitive and socioemotional argon involved and they affect us in many some other(prenominal) ways. Within these factors involved, each of them has their own different candida tes. It is like a multi-factorial process, in which overlapping of concepts is involved. restitution for an example, Timothy, a toddler who loves to eat banana, started to hold back have bananas after a choking incident. Even having tried several attempts to sting him to eat bananas again, n unrivalled work out. And ever since then, he is very break officular with what he eats and only consumes food that he feels gumshoe to eat. It is somewhat as though this choking incident has affected him psychologically, which affects his eating habits and how his body responses to different food.Development is multidirectional, in which definite dimensions or aspects in life which used to be of a certain great business to us may gradually be of a less occupy as time goes by. For example, teenagers in their adolescence phase will be nether extreme peer pressures and will tend to do what their peers do, so as not to be seen as being out-casted if he/she decided not to join in a certain event. They will eventually excrete more time with their friends, instead of spending more time at home with their family, whom he/she used to spend time with before orbit the puberty stage.Development is plastic or pliable, which associates to the design to change or readiness for a change in life. The elderly may have this issue of not being able to comprehend certain confused concepts eg. Using of computer softw argon. They may be able to do basic computering tasks after going through certain upgrading or training, however the cleverness for such changes is somewhat limited.Development is multidisciplinary, in which different groups of professional experts are all sharing a common interest in this eye socket of life-span development. And when analyzing a situation, it is necessary to consider many different dimensions which are link up or might have contri saveed to such problem in life. Take for instance, Thomas who has a drinking addiction could it be simply honest bec ause of peer pressure from family and friends or he did it out of curiosity and preeminent it to a habititual act?Development is contextual, and it is one critical factor that affects life-span development as a whole. We respond to different changes in life and it is considered as an on-going process throughout the life-span development. There are 3 types of contextual influences, and they are normative age-graded influences, normative history-graded influences and non-normative life events. In normative age-graded influences, we make comparisons baffle issues and sourcing solutions within the same age group, who has a higher likelihood of going through a particular same event eg. Puberty, menopause or retirement. In normative history-graded influences, we make comparisons determine issues and sourcing solutions with the same group of sight from the same generation ground on past history experiences eg. piece War II, SARS period. In non-normative life events, it is more likely to shell out the issue based on individuals needs, as such events may not happen for either(prenominal)one but they do affect the individuals life in many different ways eg. Death of loved ones, suicidal cases.Development involves growth, maintenance, and regulation. At different stages in life, we have different goals to address. For example, a toddler has a lot to learn at the initial stage which what we called growth eg. reading to eat, toilet-trained, and as a toddler grows up and reaches adulthood, issues like maintaining and regulating of his/her own development aspects is of a study one eg. Prevention against movecer, knowledge upgrading to help oneself understanding of a concept.Theme 2Biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes (25 marks)There are three developmental processes and periods in the life-span development, and they are biological processes, cognitive processes and socioemotional processes (John Santrock, 2009). Each of us will go through these th ree processes (they are interlink to one another), in which allow us to be different from the others distinctively.Biological processes refer to the scientific process whereby an individual develops from a baby to a boastful adult, starting from the most fundamental, genetically stage in which makes us all different since birth to the most complicated stage of hormonal changes, and ultimately reaching the final stage of ageing. We have to understand the biological changes for every stage, as well as understanding how it can affect an individual both emotionally and physically. Take for an example, a teenager who is going through puberty might have a tendency to be glowering which may be due to a series of hormonal changes in the body. Adults in the middle adulthood (35-45 to 60s) will undergo a stage called menopause, which may lead to depression if it is not diagnosed early. For both cases, getting supports from family and friends plays a very crucial role.Cognitive processes re fer to how an individual telephones, reacts and processes information at different stages in life. Almost everything that we do everyday requires us to think and react accordingly. How we response to an event affects us in many ways, both negatively and positively. Take for an example a teenager may not be able to see the importance of studying hard at that point of time, but gradually realized that in order for him/her to enter the working society, a certain qualification or relevant primer coat is required.Socioemotional processes refer to how an individual feels towards the people around him/her, and how well he/she can cope with his emotions. Most of us decide and do a certain thing based on intuition and feelings. However sometimes, we tend to overshadow certain issues and make mistakes which may affect us inevitably. Take for an example, a married couple who used to intend that they were once in love and are meant to be together, decided to end their vows and go on break dance ways. Family issues like this not only affect the husband and wife involved, but also affect their children and their other loved ones.It is important to understand the different life stages and processes involved, and also finding out the various roles that each and every client is playing, in order to understand their problems better.Theme 3developmental issues (nature vs. nurture stableness vs change continuity vs discontinuity) (25 marks)Personally, I am a strong countr that the stage of nurturing plays a very critical role, and how overmuch to an extent, an individual is being nurtured determines his/her entire attitude towards life.The environment around us and the biologically aspects in us do play a part on how we react to certain issues. But having no personal experiences and befitting nurturing system, it is hard to overcome many major issues in life.For instance, a child who comes from a rich family background may not be born(p) to be intelligent. Parents who ar e able to send their kids for adequate enrichment courses may be one way in which parents can help their kids to cope with their studies. The children that I work with are chiefly autistic children, they are very salutary examples as to why I personally feel nurturing plays a large role than nature itself. Most of the children come from well to do families, and their parents believe that it is not an ending phase for their children even though they are diagnosed with a learning disability.Humans are always unendingly on the go, and they are forced to meet up with various demands in life, and thus having changes is somewhat inevitable. I also believe that most of us have the tendency to change to a different person, given the fact that we are constantly looking for means to become a better person, or at least become someone he/she feels the most comfortable to be.A very good example would be myself. Before I entered the working society, I used to be a very isolated person. I hav e interaction issues with people, and I had very low self-esteem. After the runner year of working, I gained a lot of experiences at work, and it somewhat boosted my pledge level which allows me to see what I can actually be doing and modify to the company. Even till today, I still have doubts in myself when relations various issues eg. Dealing with parents etc. I still have a lot to change to become a better individual in the time to come by.Since I am a supporter of nurturing, I am also a believer in continuity. I personally feel that it takes time for most of us to be able to necessitate certain concepts in life, as well as, getting used to the changes that will be on going throughout the life-span. Gradual changes is an inevitable phase that all of us will have to go through. Even if it is a major, sudden change that occurred, and which in return affects someone involved, it still requires a period of time for him/her to mould slowly to an altered situation.An ex-student of mine from a Primary School Student Care Centre, who used to stay in Girls Home, was always constantly giving the school teachers and the student care teachers many disciplinary problems. It took her almost a year (from the day she was released from the Girls Home) to realize that she has to regress all those rebellious acts and that she has to place her focus in her studies (as she will be taking her PSLE in the following year).On contrary, nature and nurture stability and change continuity and discontinuity, do work hand in hand in some cases.However, to a great extent, I still believe that nurturing, changes and continuity are factors as to why a person is unique in their own way, as it is a way to identify themselves from the others as they grow up and enter different phases in life.Theme 4Theoretical approach (ie., guess of Development) that appeals the most to you in crafting your very own life-span development perspective(25 marks)I personally feels that all the various lif e-span theories mentioned in John Santrock, 2009, add up in all to explain the homo development, as each and every of the theories are based on a point of view and they are mainly focused on average one or two areas in general.The most appealing notional approach that summed up my own life-span development would be the Eriksons Psychosocial Theory.Ericksons Theory is based on how humans behave psychologically towards a social aspect eg. Interacting with the others throughout the entire human life span. It is a more terminate and detailed theory as different stages of human development are elaborated in some forms of psychosocial linkage. It is also a theory that leads us to understand how a person finds his or her identity amongst the rest.The eight stages of Ericksons Theory are as statedTrust vs. mistrust (1st year of life)My florists chrysanthemum is a babysitter and observing how a baby stop emit when his parents or my mum carried him, shows how a baby is able start diagn ose the different people around him. He will also laugh whenever my family members or his parents play with him.Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1 to 3 old age old)The most basic tasks that he has to be trained are mainly being able to tell my mother whenever he wants to pass motion or urinates, as well as having to get him to eat on his own from his bowl with a spoon.Initiative vs. guilt (3 to 5 historic period old)Introducing of a rewarding system is being used at this stage, as a way to encourage him to get him to take the undermentioned spirit to learn more and do more on his or her own initiatives.Industry vs. inferiority (6 years to puberty)My cousin who used to be under my mothers care when he was around 7 years old, was being enrolled to take up piano classes and he was doing quite well in that area. He used to be a shy boy and interacting with other peers at the kindergarten was always an issue. He completed the piano course and obtained grade 8 for piano, and ever since then, he will perform for the family during gatherings.Identity vs. identity mental confusion (10 to 20 years)My cousin (as mentioned above) did not continue in the area of arts, in which he excels rather well in. He was in a dilemma deciding which diploma course to take up, and having to make a major swop in interests was a tough and confusing phase for him. He was not sure what identity he would want to be seen as at that point of time.Intimacy vs. isolation (20s, 30s)Marriage is the key battle cry for this phase. This is a phase whereby most of my friends are attached, and break free from being single to being in a relationship. Those who are still hit are mostly still searching for their sole identity and wizard of belongings. I have met a lot of single parents at my forward work place (Student Care Centre), and most of them feel that seeking isolation or singlehood is still a better option for them.Generativity vs. stagnation (40s, 50s)This is another stage of life, wher eby families will be completed with children. Imparting of knowledge and beliefs to the next generation is the next phase, in order to kill the stagnant maintenance at this stage. Those couples who are not able to see will go through a rather stagnant life as compared to those who are able to. I have met couples who are not able to conceive (due to late marriages), and most of them feel that it is not a completion of a family, and there are times in which they have thoughts of adopting children to break the savourless life.Integrity vs. despair (60s onwards)The last phase of human life span is to be termed as having any regrets or fulfilling all tasks in life before death. My grandfather passed away 3 months ago, and certain issues were brought up eg. (Did we, as his family members, manage to fulfill his dreams and spend quality time with him when he was still around? Was he waiting for death or hoping to get his loved ones to care for him and leave without any regrets?).

Psychological Aspects of Cybersecurity

Psychological Aspects of Cyber trade protectionHuman Factors, brats, horticulture and Liability Psychological Aspects of Cyber pledgeIntroductionIn to twenty-four hourss society, cyber onslaught and onsets is becoming more prevalent. No one really knows the motivation potty much(prenominal) outpourings. In some disciplines, it may be psychological and in others it could be a way to attain an adrenaline rush by invading a high-level security system. While cyber attacks has increased, our community is displace execution actions in place to safeguard our overcritical infrastructure.With all of that being said, coitus has a responsibility to the people/nation to protect and see to it their freedom. Cyber attacks argon malicious acts that target study systems, infrastructures, and calculating machine networks. Normally, the sources of the attack are unknown and the reasons of the attack are unclear. In many cases, the attacks are designate as cyber warfare or cyber terro rism. In the same fashion, the people who fetch these crimes are described as communist, cyber terrorist, and black hat etc. However, when Congress is the focus of the attack normally the target of attack is our infrastructure.Descriptive Labels employ to CybercrimeThe descriptive label that would be applied to cybercrime is data security good luck or cyber terrorism. Further explanation of info gage Breach bill Act 2012, mandates that companies present one across reasonable security measures to protect personal discipline and establish a uniform breach notification law (S. 3333 (112th) data Security and Breach Notification Act of 2012, 2012). Cyber terrorism is when a electronic computer is used as the weapon for attack. In some cases you will mustinesser that cyber terrorism is the way to seek revenge or used as a method to intimidate or coerce one. An example of a cyber-terrorism perhaps could be hacking into aircrafts system and changing the coordinates of the ru sh.In 1996, chairperson Bill Clinton created a Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. Congress rising that the nation was at risk of cyber attacks. Therefore, to heighten awareness and maintain frugal stability the board felt it was necessary to protect critical infrastructure. This was a mixture of electricity, computer networks, communication etc. because all of these elements were vulnerable of cyber-warfare. With this in mind, the bafflement was also thinking of protecting the humankind and mysterious industries from such attacks. They were completely oblivious of the dangers how much or daily lives rely on computers. Not deeming the dangers and vulnerabilities they subjects themselves to when using the computer. Another issue is finding out who are the perpetrators and how the attack were initiated. The board felt it would be close to helpful if they adequately protected critical system from intrusion. That meant ensuring the proper firewalls were enabled a nd the system was being monitored (http// FactorsIn reality, if the coupled States Infrastructure comes under attack the enemy could stultify our defenses depending on how sophisticated the attacker is. The possible intent behind struggle our infrastructure, would be to target our water supply, transportation, telecommunication, energy, and last but not least(prenominal) finance. Our way of living depends on critical infrastructure if we were to lose these behavior-sustaining roles we would be vulnerable to the enemy. These operations are outstanding and we have stick dependent on these networks. The lost of electricity, telecommunications, transportation, energy, and water would render us helpless. such an attack would disrupt our day-to-day life and cause mass solicitude and fear. Therefore, in show to stop such an act from occurring, Congress has created a new executive branch to merge 22 government agencies that were alrea dy in existence. The goal was to secure the nation and preserve freedom. In addition, have the ability to fence off attacks and be prepared for unexpected disasters. To come upon this task, the segment of Homeland Security had to unify the department in order to strengthen the components. Policy tells us that with partnership with other departments and operators of critical infrastructure would improve cyber security sharing information, which is ideal for the nation.Water yieldAttacking the water supply would be the most critical attack on the infrastructure. The water supply is controlled by computer systems, which is why it poses the most security risk. If the enemy was able to bypass the security features, they could release s intimatelyed amounts of water in any particular area. Destruction of large dams could let go of large amounts of water resulting in catastrophic flooding, loss of life and deadening to property.Another vulnerability would be the sewer system. The se wage system protects public health and the environment while providing a series of treatment that orderly the water supply. Raw sewage has harmful bacteria and viruses that could be life threatening to human or animas if exposed to it.Bioterrorism or chemical substance attacks could deliver wide administer contamination with small amounts of microbiological agents or toxic chemicals could bushwhack public health (Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector, 2006 ). (http// cheek/68790.pdf). energyThe second most eventful infrastructure that could be attacked is energy. Energy is described in two separate classifications one being electricity and the other being natural gas. Electricity is used in everywhere i.e. houses, cities and regions. It is needed for day-to-day living such usage of machines and life scrimping mechanisms. For example, cyber terrorist has the ability to gain access to daily power insure data. The report show s the flow of electricity in different regions.As a result, a cyber terrorist would have the ability to know what the busiest sections of the football field were. It is important to realize with this information they could shut down the power gird at the busiest time of the day and cause hysteria, backflow, and confusion. Without power the United States, defenses are down. There have been incidents or credible intelligence to indicate that a potentially well organized, dissipated cyber attack is imminent against the electrical utility industry in general or BPA specifically, or Terrorist activity, either physical or cyber, has been perpetrated against civilian or government sites indoors the boundaries of the United States (Threat Conditions, n.d.). http// only is electricity important to infrastructure but natural gas is too. Cyber terrorist can obturate the use or redirect gas flows. Keeping the energy a float is important for mai ntaining the safety and economic success in the United States. The White House Initiative has an Executive order, which is led by the Department of Energy and the Department of Homeland Security. Their job is to ensure electric companies and grid operators have working knowledge of cyber security potentials and prioritize their actions and investments to improve cyber security. In addition their industry stakeholders in the energy sector, are also add to the development of the Cyber security Framework, which was announced as part of Executive parade 13636 on Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity. (http// holds/energy-department-announces-new-investments-over-30-million-better-protect-nation-s).TransportationA care in the transportation system would cause a chain of economic disruption. By interfering with transportation it hinder citizens and would progressively degrade the economy over time span. It would impede on scheduling as well as accessibility. In lik e manner, these methods would have a negative encounter on cargo being transported from place to place. Moreover, cyber terrorist can target stun operations by taking controls of the switches, additional they could take over flight software to divert aircraft. Sapphire or Slammer worm spread quickly through the Internet attacking millions of computers and overwhelming them with data cod to a flaw in a Microsoft program. (CONSUMER PRIVACY DEVELOPMENTS, n.d.).Transportation is important to critical infrastructure. In order to maintain a since of balance, proactive measures must be in place to strengthen and secure critical infrastructure. It is important to have the necessary assets including but not limited to networks and public confidence. costless to say, the infrastructure must be secure in order to withstand and promptly recoup from an attack.FinanceTelecommunicationCompany LiabilitiesReducing vulnerabilities through effective internal cybersecurity policy controlsConclusion The threat of cyber crime has arise in the United States. Congress is having more debates on the nations s cyber security, terrorism, and breaches within our national systems. It was said by the ******* that we were in trouble because cyber attacks have resulted in the greatest transfer of wealth in history. (*****). Although, Legislation have been proposed to govern the laws the bills have not been enacted. This is mainly due to the fact the government and private industries have issues with the federal data security bills. Currently, the United States has a cyber security Executive Order in place.The purpose for this order, is to protect their United States from cyber bruise and the attacks against the nations critical infrastructure. A threat to the infrastructure is major to national security. Our nation relies on the infrastructure to keep the mainframe secure and efficient against intrusion. As stated earlier, cyber attacks are becoming more vigilant therefore, the governmen t had to make changes to the executive branch. In 2002, a new executive department was put into place called the Homeland Security Act. Homeland Security Act 2002, was created to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States reduce the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism and minimise the damage, and assist in the recovery, from terrorist attacks that do occur within the United States. (Homeland Security Act of 2002)ReferencesAnonymous. (2011). Data breach and electronic crime the Sonys case. Retrieved from http// (2013). Managing CyberSecurity Risk. Retrieved from Protiviti http// (n.d). close Sony Electronics Life at Sony. Retrieved from http// http// mlAnonymous. (n.d). Corporate Mission. Retrieved from neimanmarcus http// (n.d). Mission Values. Retrieved from astir(predicate) Target https// (n.d). Throught the social classs. Retrieved from https//, M. (2011). Citi says 360,000 accounts hacked in May cyber attack. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http//, S. (2009). Penetration Testing. In Vacca, J. R. (Ed.), information processing system and information security handbook. Boston, MA Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.Bodhani, A. (2013). BadIn a Good Way. Engineering Technology, 7(12), p64-68.Campbell, Q., Kennedy, D.M. (2009). The psychology of computer criminals. In Bosworth, et al., (Eds.), computer security handbook. New York, NY John Wiley Sons.Chen, C. Shaw, R. Yang, S. (2006). Mitigati ng information security risks by increasing user security awareness A case study of an information security awareness system. Information Technology, Learning transaction Journal, 24(1), p1-14.Chen, T. Walsh, P. (2009). Guarding Against Network Intrusions. In Vacca, J. R. (Ed.), Computer and information security handbook. Boston, MA Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.DATALOSSdb make Security Foundation (2014). Data Loss Statistics. Retrieved from http//, D., Himma, K.E. (2006). Hackers, crackers and computer criminals. In H. Bidgoli (Ed.), Handbook of information security (Vol 2). New York, NY John Wiley Sons.Elgin, B., Lawrence, D., Riley , M. (2014, February 21). Neiman Marcus Hackers Set shoot 60,000 Alerts While Bagging Credit Card Data. Retrieved from http// Issues. (2013). Retrieved from http//cps182cyber-crim, K.M., Theohary, C.A. (2012). Cyber-crime Conceptual issues for sex act and U.S. law enforcement. Journal of Current Issues in Crime, Law and Law Enforcement. 5 (1/2), 1-27. Retrieved from http//, S. (2014, January 29). Holder Feds Investigating Target Breach. Retrieved from http//, S. (2013, declination 27). Targets Data-Breach Timeline. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal http//, G. (2011). Mass e-mail breach Just how bad is it? Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http//, E. A., Perlroth, N., Popper, N. (2014, January 23). Neiman Marc us Data Breach Worse Than First Said. Retrieved from New YOrk Times http//, A.B., Lass, F.D., Makinde, J. (2012). Cyber-crime in Nigeria Causes, effects and the way out. ARPN Journal of Science and Technology. 2(7), 626-631. Retrieved from http//, S., Finkle, J. (2014, bump into 13). Target says it declined to act on early alert of cyber breach. Retrieved from Reuters. Com http// (2012). spirit cyber-crime Phenomena, challenges and legal response. Retrieved from pdfKaiser, D. (2007). Insurance options vary as much as cyber attacks. Business Insurance, 41(21), 24.Katz, K. (2014, February 21). Security info. Retrieved from http// cat49570732/, B. (2014, 02 14). Target Hackers Broke in Via HVAC Company. Retrieved from http//, J. (2013). tiptop the Bar for Cybersecurity. Center for Strategic International Studies. Retrieved from http//, B. (2009). Intranet Security. In Vacca, J. R. (Ed.), Computer and information security handbook. Boston, MA Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.McAfee (2014). McAfee Labs Threats Report Fourth Quarter 2013. McAfee Labs. Retrieved from http//, C. (2005). identity theft is out of control. (cover story). PC Magazine, 24(14), 87Sales, N. (2013). REGULATING CYBER-SECURITY. north University Law Review, 107(4), 1503-1568.Shackleford, D. (2013). New Pathways to Network Security. Information Security, 15( 6), p10-15.Sherr, I., Wingfield, N. (2012, May 7). Play by Play Sonys Struggles on Breach. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal http//, J. (2011). Understanding cyber-crime in Ghana A view from below. International Journal of Cyber Criminology. 5(1), 736-749. Retrieved from http//, D. (2001). Computer crime and ethics. Retrieved from http//, M. (2011, May 01). PlayStation Network Hack Timeline. Retrieved from http//, J., Maclean, W. (2011). IMF cyber attack aimed to steal insider information Expert. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from http//, A. (2013, August 08). LulzSec Hacker Gets Year in Prison for Sony Attack. Retrieved from courthouse http//

Thursday, March 28, 2019

History of Counseling Essay -- Psychology, The New and Old Testaments

It is said that in identify to know where you atomic number 18 going, it is important to know where you have been. This saw applies to m both facets of life but also to the profession of counseling. In order to gain insight into the proximo of the profession, this author seeks to uncover the past that has influence the current landscape. In doing so, the hope is to preserve what may be preserved, chasten those mistakes of the past and forge new paths that will lead to wholeness and health. account statement and TimelineIn deciphering the history of Psychology, wizard can subscribe to two seperate schools of thought. The first of all is that of the secular worldview that gives credence only to those things of this world. The focus here is on the scientific discoveries of various men throughout the ages. The second comes from a Biblical worldview that recognizes the dependable nature of soul c atomic number 18 as an outward manifestation of Gods leniency and mercy to Hi s broken people. This author will construct a timeline that attempts to contain the two views and represent the split as well as the presage way that they have been brought back together with a bright future for integration.Counseling has been a part of history from the origin of man. The Old and newfangled Testament have countless references to prophets, apostles and preachers who offered help and consolation to those in aim of care. The apostle Paul clearly spoke of our ability to aid others when he said, I myself am convinced, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, complete in knowledge and able to instruct (counsel) one another (Romans 1514, NIV) We were created to work in consistency with one another, offering aid to those who are afflicted in any way we can. This form of counseling relies... ... integrate each discipline into one cohesive recognition of truth. According to this source, all counselors exist somewhere in spite of appearance these bo unds.When we think about creating a model of therapy that will serve God, our ethical responsibilities, our moral imperatives and our clients, integration and careful analysis of each model that has preceded are of tantamount importance. We must glean those concepts and techniques from each theory that allow us to function within the Allies camp, the most advantageous category of integration.(Entwistle, 2010) In order to do this, we parse each model into five pieces. These are Philosophical Assumptions, Model of Personality, Model of Abnormality and Health, Model of Psychotherapy and show Effectiveness.(Jones & Butman, 1991) In this way, we can consider the victories of the past and leave behind the mistakes.

Free Essays - Desire and Reason in Macbeth :: Macbeth essays

Desire and Reason in Macbeth     In the play Macbeth the newsworthiness want occurs 7 times and the word reasonableness occurs 5 times. These words have an important correlation and be a main theme in the play. Although the meaning of these words does non vary much at all in all in this play, their impact on the play is in the words surrounding them, and their place in the study of the plot. The first time desire shows up in the play is when bird Macbeth is speaking in her first soliloquy and says, I burned in desire to question them further. In which she was referring to the prophecy of which was revealed to her, and triggers the plot against Duncan, and her reason for her early lust to power. The second time she mentions desire she says, Where our Desire is got without subject area. With the surrounding text she is saying that if your desires are obtained without happiness then all is lost. In two of the times Lady Macbeth uses desire it is in referral to Macbeth world king. The other time she uses it is persuading him to kill Duncan, when she questions his desire and strength to obtain them.   Macduff uses desire much less passionately than Lady Macbeth mostly he uses it to distinguish and emotion of wanting something, it is very much completely is context without literary impact of the word itself. The most significant time he uses it is ahead Duncan was discovered to be dead he says, it provokes the desire, but takes away the work. He was speaking about alcohol and provoking the desire for come alive but taking away the ability to have it. This is not contrasting from Macbeth envisioning the dagger that seems just out of reach. Later too he nearly backs out of the plot against Duncan, which is when Lady Macbeth says that she would bash her childs brains in if she had verbalize she would confronting Macbeth about his passive approach to desire.   In the same speech in which she is convincing Macbeth t o follow through with the murder reason is used in an extremely clever part of the play.