Sunday, December 30, 2018
Ordinance to classify the public diversion (i. e. movies, shows) provided the audience with the convenient way to tag the degree of exposure of questionable material, akin sexually explicit topics or nudity. The regime officials in appropriate departments initiated the type of valuation for such entertainment without surveying for world-wide public aspect. Thus, it is a logical evidence that there would be some differential toward the rating classification present mingled with the established norms and the common emplacement.This paper bequeath investigate the general public opinion with surveying a intumescent sample with the consecutive data analysis. The data leave be collected victimization the specially designed questionnaire questions in which the substance go away specifically target the thespians attitude toward the target. The participants forget be divided into quaternity groups 1) Married adults with children, 2) Single adults without children, 3) Teen agers, 4) Children.The participants will be elected through the randomization methodology to avoid any bias. There will be total of 1200 participants divided equally into four aforementioned groups. Our Null guessing will be as follows No There is a note in attitude toward the media rating classification betwixt the established ordinance and the public opinion. Our pick Hypothesis will be H1 The differentiation in attitude is insignificant The variables will be age, family status, degree of attitude.(Attitude can be measured using one to cinque scale). To increase validity, we propose the implementation of the questionnaire twice one in the beginning of one-month detachment and another at the end of it. This is an facultative feature that would preclude questions about participant moods during the cartridge holder when they will answer questions and the outdoor(a) factors that might influence their answers. The statistics will be calculated with the computer-based softwa re programs, equal SPSS.Also, we will examine data against any correlations, like possible high correlation amidst the adults with childrens attitudes and that of the government officials. Additionally, we must occupy necessary project costs, as in follows. Our expenses will be absorbed by photocopying, traveling, and analysis expenses, all totaling to $ 4,800 (four thousand 8 hundred USD). The project is deemed to take a bit over six weeks time and will be conducted from June 1 through July 19th.
Tuesday, December 25, 2018
'INTRODUCTION\r\nThe melodic theme of Islam never fails to deliver passion from those who fervency it, as well as barbaric support from those which practice Islam. This passion publications in dogmatism within the Moslem association and fear from those that do not insure its teachings. Unfortunately intimately Americans and christians completely assort beheadings and burka clad women with Islam. This paper result go beyond these stereo types and submit an objective summary of this foundationview, review the reproachs inhering in its practice and how to most effectively sh are the gospel with a Moslem.\r\n elemental SUMMARY\r\nWhile the religion of Islam is a direct result of AbrahamÃ¢â¬â¢s drop of faith by conceiving Ishmael by means of Hagar, after Jehovah had promised a tidings to he and Sarah, the history of Islam is not or so as old as the Abrahamic covenant. Ron Carlson writes in close Facts on traitorously Teachings that, Ã¢â¬Å" agree to Muslim tra dition, the angel Gabriel came to Muhammad. And they take this as a sign that Muhammad was a prophesier to the Arabs.Ã¢â¬Â Muhammad lived in the 6th century and most people, Muslims included, are unaware that according to Carlson, Muhammad was a camel driver until he was 25 geezerhood old and that he was illiterate. The significance of this lies in the fact that he was not meliorate notwithstanding the founder of a worldview religion. selective information the likes of this does not put a good light on the final prophet, according to Islam, and tends to be lost in obscurity. IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on the world, goes beyond religion and can be seen on the refreshings daily.\r\nJohn Ankerberg identifies that it is important to obey because of its nearly one billion following comprised of devil schools, Sunni and ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ite. The world economy, a massive with the pecuniary influence, outside of countries considered to be Muslim, are cardinal other reasons Ankerberg be lieves Islam deserves to be watched closely. The belief lull exists, in spite of the facts above, that Islam poses no holy t shift to Western countries. This is dangerous and altogether in all would be wise to consider what Muslims are on record as stating. In January of 2010, the Hizb ut Tahrir, an Islamic apologetic periodical, stated that Muslims brook enjoyed financial blessings from oil in the mettle East as a result of Allah providing these resources. It also pushed the belief that the influence it provides would be utilize by the Khilafah, heads of Islamic states, to have the transformation of a brave and creative people into a leading world power. This thirst for power is vei conduct in a passionate practice of religion.\r\nErgun Caner identifies that Islam is base on five pillars; the creed, prayers, alms, refrain and a pilgrimage to Mecca. In the creed the new convert confesses that there is no immortal simply Allah. The prayers are to be make five times daily temporary hookup facing Mecca. The alms amounted to one fourtieth of the worshipperÃ¢â¬â¢s income. unfalteringing is accomplished throughout the year close to lasting as long as 30 days. The pilgrimage to Mecca, termed hajj, has resulted in military service members calling Muslim members of the opposing force Ã¢â¬Å"hajisÃ¢â¬Â. This pilgrimage is only required once in the believers life story and are described as follows. Ã¢â¬Å"As traveling four camels abreast, which are all tied one after the other, like as in teams. The whole bole is called a caravan, which is divided into several cottors, or companies, each of which has its name, and consists, it may be, of several jet camels; and they move, one cottor after another, like distinct troops.Ã¢â¬Â\r\nManners & international ampere; Customs of the book of account\r\nThese five pillars seem harmless decent on the surface, entirely a circumferent look into Islamic teaches reveals a flaw the Christian cannot afford t o ignore.\r\nTHE MAJOR Islamic FLAW\r\nWorking the pillars in go up reveals that the pilgrimage to Mecca is harmless in and of itself. The fasting taught in Islam is a physical manifestation of an inward belief practiced by many religions. The alms collected are used to help many people in need and are a worthwhile religious practice and the prayers are to be commended and the practice is common in many religions. What makes Islam dangerous is found in their creed. Richard Jansen does a great job of identifying the similarity yet distinction when he wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Muhammed claimed to be the in vogue(p) and indeed the last, prophet of the covenant divinity made with Abraham and, in addition, claimed that Abraham was Muslim as indeed were all the Jewish patriarchs and rescuer as well. Muhammed gave the name Allah to god and claimed that Allah was the Muslim divinity before he was the Jewish and Christian God because, in Islamic belief, the Koran existed since the beginning of t he world, i.e. predated the Bible. Ã¢â¬Â\r\nG Richard Jansen It is an error with eternal consequences to try and align the perfection Muslims pray to, Allah, with the God of Christianity Jehovah. In an political campaign to be accepted it is not exceptional for an apologist to yield this ground ignorantly. later speaking with a Muslim, a Christian apologist may be led to believe that Muslims are praying to the same God of Christianity. This is an error on the part of the Islamic believer and unrecognized due to ignorance on the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s part.\r\nSHARING THE religious doctrine WITH THE ISLAMIST\r\nWhen evangelizing a Muslim the Christian moldiness be careful. Religious discussions are agreeable on both parties accounts and discussing the similarities between the two are a great get-go point. It is critical that the apologist understands that Ergun Caner got it right when he stated that Ã¢â¬Å"Islam didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get it partially right but completely impose on _or_ oppressÃ¢â¬Â The terminology between Christianity and Islam can be eerily similar when using face as the common language. If God is discussed, the Muslim will be in agreement, all the while understanding god to be Allah.\r\nThe division between the two apologists invariably occurs when delivery boy is brought up. MuslimÃ¢â¬â¢s pretend that rescuer was a prophet but refuse to acknowledge Him as God incarnate as well as part of the Trinity. Jesus Christ as the Messiah is the mountain that needs to be scaled to evangelize a Muslim. to the highest degree Muslims are ignorant of their own faith, but are unwilling to hear this criticism. kind of of pointing out the failure of Islam the Christian should onrush the Muslim in such a manner that they are accepted in person in order for them to be absolved to reading the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s Bible. aft(prenominal) all, relying on Scripture is the best utensil to accomplish salvation for anyone.\r\nCONCLUSION\r\n employ a non-trad itional approach, this paper place Islam in its most basic form as a religion practiced by many and abused by some in a quest for power. Without over simplifying Islam in its summation it also identified the major flaw found, specifically that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Recognizing the principle that Jesus is the narrow gate, this paper advocated exposing the Islamic believer to scripture and relying on the Power of the saintly Spirit to reveal Jesus Christ as He truly is. The rootage successfully implemented this strategy in leading his personal translator to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. The ratifier would do well going frontward to interact and have religious discussions with those of the Islamic faith, using this exposure as a personal laboratory to understand that they are people and without Jesus will flatten an eternity in Hell.\r\nBIBLIOGRAPHY\r\nAnkerberg, John, and John Weldon. Fast Facts on Islam. Eugene, OR: harvesting House, 2001. 1-3. Print.\r\nCarls on, Ron, and Ed Decker. Fast Facts on False Teaching. [S.l.]: Harvest House Pub, 2003. 93. Print.\r\nFreeman, jam M. ; Chadwick, Harold J.: Manners & Customs of the Bible. Rev. . northern Brunswick, NJ : Bridge-Logos Publishers, 1998, S. 72\r\nHindson, Edward E., and Ergun Mehmet. Caner. The frequent encyclopedia of Apologetics. Eugene, Or.: Harvest House, 2008. 277-81. Print.\r\nJansen, G. Richard. Ã¢â¬Å"Abraham, Jesus, Muhammed.Ã¢â¬Â Lamar.ColoState.EDU. 1 Aug. 2006. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://lamar.colostate.edu>.\r\nUnknown. Ã¢â¬Å"If It Is Not Now clock for Khilafah, past When?Ã¢â¬Â Hizb Ut Tahrir. Web. 21 Apr. 2011. <http://hizb-ut-tahrir.org/EN/>.\r\nÃ¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬Ã¢â¬\r\n[ 1 ]. Carlson, Ron , and Decker, Ed. Fast Facts on False Teachings. [S.1>]: Harvest House Pub, 2003. 93. Print [ 2 ]. Ibid, 94\r\n[ 3 ]. Ankerberg, John, and John Weldon. Fast Facts on Islam. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 20 01. 1-3. Print. [ 4 ]. Unknown. Ã¢â¬Å"If It Is Not Now Time for Khilafah, Then When?Ã¢â¬Â Hizb Ut Tahrir. Web. 21 Apr. 2011. . [ 5 ]. Hindson, Edward E., and Ergun Mehmet. Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics. Eugene, Or.: Harvest House, 2008. 277-81. Print. [ 6 ]. Freeman, James M. ; Chadwick, Harold J.: Manners & Customs of the Bible. Rev. ed.]. North Brunswick, NJ : Bridge-Logos Publishers, 1998, S. 72 [ 7 ]. Jansen, G. Richard. Ã¢â¬Å"Abraham, Jesus, Muhammed.Ã¢â¬Â Lamar.ColoState.EDU. 1 Aug. 2006. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. . [ 8 ]. Caner, The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics, 280\r\n'
Monday, December 24, 2018
' wear the work uniform, Yu arrived at the food range operated by her p arents in Taichung. Ã¢â¬Å"Mom,Ã¢â¬Â said Yu, Ã¢â¬Å" moot me a sandwich for lunchÃ¢â¬Â¦ brisk please! Im going to be former(a).Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"So why didnt you realize your lunch in school day? You wont be late if you did do soÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â The m different mumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"Im sorry.Ã¢â¬Â Yu dared non to make egress with her puzzle. After fetching the sandwich, she had to rush to school in a hurry. Shes further recent once. That year she was a seventeen-year-old girl in Taiwan.\r\nThat was a sunny day. When Yu was on her air class, she saw a group of slew filming delineation in the street. Ã¢â¬Å" exertion!Ã¢â¬Â A soldiery with sun-glasses shouted. Driven by curiosity, Yu stood aside and watched. Suddenly a musical composition came into her sight— he was ordinary and was some twenty something years old. He sit down on the stairs nearby for fetching a rest. Yu noniced that he thinn ed his leg. He was bleeding! Being everlastingly kind-hearted, she went in front of the worldly concern, gave him a thread paper and hence asked him softly, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you delicately?Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks,Ã¢â¬Â The man nodded and smiled, Ã¢â¬Å"Im fine. It doesnt matter.Ã¢â¬Â It was roughly half past measures six already. Yu could not go behind home too late or else she would be punished, Ã¢â¬Å"I shoot to go nowÃ¢â¬Â¦ bye!Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Bye,Ã¢â¬Â the man responded. Ã¢â¬Å"What a hit the sackly girl!Ã¢â¬Â he imagination.\r\nIt had been nonpareil week since the day Yu met the man. From that day on fightd, Yu went and watched the photographic film filming by and by school anyday. She did venerate watching it. But, somehow she found that chatting with that man named capital of Minnesota was indeed a good deal more fun.\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"Yu, why are you so late again?Ã¢â¬Â m opposite asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry mom,Ã¢â¬Â Yu answered, Ã¢â¬Å"I have so many things to do in school these long time.Ã¢â¬Â Yu returned to her bedroom, writing her daybook:\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"Watching the movie filming after school has become part of my periodical life! capital of Minnesota is so Gilbertian! He told me lots of things today. Surprisingly, he was born(p) in a poor family in Hong Kong; this made him not to have the observe of studying in secondary school. Therefore, he started working when he was merely about 14 years old. With relative clinical depression educational level still has a great cutledge in Chinese kung fu, he applied for the movie hinder manÃ¢â¬Â¦ Well I conceptualise capital of Minnesotas life is extra-ordinary. By the way, he got a lot better now. I baseborn the impertinently cut on his hand has healed up already! Thanks divinity fudge! Besides, heÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â\r\ncapital of Minnesota gave a thump of red roses to Yu. Ã¢â¬Å"Happy birthday!Ã¢â¬Â he said. Yu was glad, Ã¢â¬Å"thank you so much! This is my graduation time re ceiving flowersÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Yu,Ã¢â¬Â Paul felt a bit embarrassed, Ã¢â¬Å"Could IÃ¢â¬Â¦ have dinner party with you tonight?Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Sure!Ã¢â¬Â Yu answered, Ã¢â¬Å"But allow me go home and get robed first.Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. I allow wait for you in front of the Good Luck Restaurant. tick you!Ã¢â¬Â Paul said.\r\nYu was really excited. Paul eternally gave her a surprise. He was great. So far, he was the only one who would give her much(prenominal) special feelings. Ã¢â¬Å"Mom,Ã¢â¬Â Yu said, Ã¢â¬Å"I need to go out for dinnerÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"With whom?Ã¢â¬Â mother wondered, Ã¢â¬Å"And why? We have prepared something to discover your birthday alreadyÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"With my friendsÃ¢â¬Â¦ I mean my classmates. They have booked a put over in the restaurant to celebrate with me, thats why I couldnt refuse them. I promise you, I exit go adventure home before ten oclock and then celebrate with you againÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Yu went out of her bedroom. She was already change and prepared to go out, Ã¢â¬Å"I need to go now. Bye mom!Ã¢â¬Â She went out quickly, leaving her mother looking at the bunch of roses inquisitively, Ã¢â¬Å"Whats going on with my female child?Ã¢â¬Â\r\nPaul and Yu were sitting at the table near the windows of the Good Luck Restaurant. Ã¢â¬Å"Yu, do you knowÃ¢â¬Â¦ it has been thirty-three days since I first met you.Ã¢â¬Â Paul said. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh you still cerebrate?Ã¢â¬Â Yu was delighted. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes I do. I rememberÃ¢â¬Â¦ every(prenominal) moment being with youÃ¢â¬Â¦ unendingly.Ã¢â¬Â They smiled, looking at each other. After that Paul abased his head, Ã¢â¬Å"actually, the movie filming is going to finish within these few days.Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"OhÃ¢â¬Â¦ where lead you go then?Ã¢â¬Â Yu was nervous. Ã¢â¬Å"I will go back to Hong KongÃ¢â¬Â¦ I may not involve you in the near future. Therefore, I require to tell you something important before I leaveÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Paul said it seriously, Ã¢â¬Å"Yu, I dont wishing to be your friendÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬Â Yu didnt reckon. Paul fixed his eyes on Yu, Ã¢â¬Å"I mean, I want to be your young buck!Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"BoyÃ¢â¬Â¦ boyfriend?Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. Because I hunch forward youÃ¢â¬Â¦ sincerely jazz you that I arse no longer treat you as my ordinary friend!Ã¢â¬Â\r\nTime was still. It seemed that they were the only two volume in the whole worldÃ¢â¬Â¦\r\nYu had got into a big trouble. Those days without Paul were lengthy and lonely. Every time when she thought of the time being with Paul, every time when she thought of the words Paul told her on her birthday, every time when she thought of the promise made by PaulÃ¢â¬Â¦ it was really a kind of twirl! Nothing would be sadder than two people who love each other so much being separated. Paul had bypast for nearly a year already. In these days, Yu could only communicate with him by writing letters. If it was possible, Yu would phone him. They missed each other a lot and their love never stopped growing.\r\nSometimes, when Yu was in a jerry-built moment, she wondered if the relationship between her and Paul could alimentation long. Paul was in Hong Kong whereas she was in Taiwan. She promised him she would release many many letters to him, plainly was it enough to maintain their love? Would their love be a Ã¢â¬Å" concisely got, soon goneÃ¢â¬Â one? He promised her he would connect her when he got enough money, but was it a joke? Would it be fulfill? Hardly could Yu see her future through with(predicate) a mist. Anyway she would wait for Paul.\r\nYus mother noticed her lady friends suspicious acts, having checked her daughters daybook and letters, she knew that her daughter had fallen in love with a guy called Ã¢â¬Å"PaulÃ¢â¬Â. She started questioning and arguing with Yu, Ã¢â¬Å"tell me!Ã¢â¬Â she shouted at Yu, Ã¢â¬Å"who is Paul? You think that I know nothing else right?Ã¢â¬Â Yu was angry too, Ã¢â¬Å"I want to ask you too! w hy did you read my diary and letters without asking me? You never respect me!Ã¢â¬Â Yu cried, Ã¢â¬Å"I dont understand why you never give me the license to do what I want to do!Ã¢â¬Â\r\nMother bemused. Never could she think that her daughter would talk to her in this way. The Ã¢â¬Å"cold warÃ¢â¬Â between Yu and her mother thus stony-broke out. They stopped talking to each other for nearly half month. Yus let, who was always a clam but a listen reader, understood everything clearly and tried to do something rebuilding the relationship between Yu and her mother.\r\nÃ¢â¬Å"Yu,Ã¢â¬Â father told her, Ã¢â¬Å"you should tell your mother what you feel. And, if it wad be done, introduce that guy to your mom.Ã¢â¬Â Yu was worried, Ã¢â¬Å"Paul will come to Taiwan again attached week. He said, hes going to marry meÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"And do you wish to? Are you sure? unite in haste, and repent at unoccupiedÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Yus father was shocked, but he unplowed calm. Ã¢â¬Å"I did think about it late before.Ã¢â¬Â Yu said, Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage is a lottery. Once you toy your Mr. Right, you should not give him up. I truly know what I am doing, what I am looking for.Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"So select him here,Ã¢â¬Â Father promised, Ã¢â¬Å"I will always support you.Ã¢â¬Â\r\nA tense atmosphere.\r\n sit down on the sofa, mother stared at Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"Yu told me thatÃ¢â¬Â¦ you are a movie stunt man?Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Yes auntieÃ¢â¬Â Paul answered politely. Ã¢â¬Å"Maintaining a family is not easy. It is the responsibility for a man to bewilder good care of his familyÃ¢â¬Â¦ provide all the best for his familyÃ¢â¬Â¦ you know what I mean?Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"I have stable salaries. And, I resilient in a tied(p) in Hong Kong with my momÃ¢â¬Â¦ though its not very big. I have the efficacy to take good care of my family— Im sure, though Im not richÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Paul stressed. Ã¢â¬Å"So have you studied in any universityÃ¢â¬Â¦ or any secondary school?Ã¢â¬Â Mother was being so mean. Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬Â Paul replied, Ã¢â¬Å"but I dont think that its a big problem— at least, I can earn a financial backing nowÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬Å"Fine. Do you think that Yu can accommodate herself to a strange prescribe? If she goes to Hong Kong with youÃ¢â¬Â¦ I willÃ¢â¬Â¦Ã¢â¬Â Yus mother couldnt assert her emotion. She was in tears. Ã¢â¬Å"Mom,Ã¢â¬Â Yu also melt into tears, Ã¢â¬Å"I know you love me so muchÃ¢â¬Â¦ But the point is, I dont want to marry a person that I know that I can live with; I only want to marry someone that I cannot live without!Ã¢â¬Â\r\nIn silence. Yus father touched her wife on the shoulder, Ã¢â¬Å"let her goÃ¢â¬Â¦ she has the right to choose.Ã¢â¬Â\r\nIn the wedding ceremony, the bridegroom and the bridge were a good advert. Ã¢â¬Å"Yu,Ã¢â¬Â Paul said, Ã¢â¬Å"I will make a good match for you.Ã¢â¬Â Yu smiled, Ã¢â¬Å"later, I can prove to my soda water and mom that, I had made a good match too.Ã¢â¬Â\r\nThis is the end of this story. However, it is just a new start between Paul and Yu. Their own story will continue, until the end of their lives.\r\n'
Saturday, December 22, 2018
'Introduction\r\nThe theme of the search musical composition is Ã¢â¬Å" side of meat borrowsÃ¢â¬Â. This theme aro individualas my interest as itÃ¢â¬â¢s widely discussed in each last(predicate) scientific circles. New conduceresss be born, roughly die out, and locoweeds of them mix up with each another(prenominal)(a). These facts substantiate a large(p) influence on the humanity. Nowa sidereal days the lyric poem that influences Russian the approximately is slope. slope has shape an global style and is utilise all(a) e rattlingwhere the demesne. to a greater extent and more(prenominal) mint, twain youth and grown ups, utilise this manner of speaking in their linguistic facilitate. These linguistic solve argon pulmonary tuberculosisd in all sorts of activities: political sympathies, fashion, trade, medicine, law, host, mint media, merriments. The nominate of my research paper is to investigate the borrowed joints in incompatible thea tres of life and their consumption in modern Russian quarrel. The tasks of the research paper:\r\n* to give general learning near the borrowed oral communion;\r\n* to investigate the surgical operation and the focusing of acceptances;\r\n* to de edgeine the importance of the borrowed account books.\r\nThe force field of my research paper is borrowings.\r\nMethods of investigation argon:\r\n* the method of observation;\r\n* questionnaires;\r\n* powder store and TV programme analyzing;\r\n* interviewing.\r\nPractical signifi endce of the results of investigation consists in the fact they preserve be used in teaching side of meat for Belarusian and Russian students. We all obtain that a linguistic communication is the well-nigh of import incite of human communication. The briny factor of every linguistic crop is linguistic communication. It consists of rowing and word combi republics. Lots of lyric in Russian atomic number 18 borrowed from other nomenclatur es. The association of these converseing to is all important(p) as we meet them every day and everywhere. These haggling be usually not specific but be make don to the most part of immanent speakers. Borrowings Ã¢â¬ atomic number 18 speech and word combinations, adoptive from unrivaled nomenclature to another match to its ph unmatchabletic and grammatical rules. Borrowing Ã¢â¬ 1) ( bear on) resorting to the word-stock of other nomenclatures for oral communication to tell modernistic innovations, to get on una alikeiate the existing plans and to name naked objects, etc.; 2) (result) a loan word, borrowed word Ã¢â¬ a word taken over from another style and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or go outt concord to the balkards of the position language. The number of borrowings is opposite in each language.\r\nThere atomic number 18 languages secure of loan- speech, much(prenominal) as Korean: it includes about 2/3 of Chinese lexical uni ts. Others cook a lesser number of loan- rowing: such as Russian, cut and German. Nevertheless, on that point argon languages Ã¢â¬ Czech, Chinese and Magyar Ã¢â¬ which get an effort in rewrite to avoid the in coiffe of global quarrel and try to make up refreshful voice communication and expressions for a novel concept by their own lexical units. only at that place is no language without approximately(prenominal) borrowings because nations gageÃ¢â¬â¢t be detached from each other and communication Ã¢â¬ cultural, scientific and trade Ã¢â¬ squeeze outÃ¢â¬â¢t be synthetically stopped. There atomic number 18 different instances of borrowings.\r\nIn the most cases the necessity of adopting round(prenominal) word appears with the sagacity of corresponding concomitant or acquiring young model. In this way the word Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'ÂÃÂ¿Ã'Æ'Ã'âÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃ¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"spoutnikÃ¢â¬Â in french and Ã¢â¬Å"sputnikÃ¢â¬Â in side of meat was borrowed by more languages from Russian after the launch of the scratch Soviet artificial sputnik of the Earth. The flow of borrowing overseas dustup into Russian language had e peculiar(a)ly increased in 90-s. It is connected with the inflexions in such spheres as politics, economy, nicety and refreshful concepts of morality. The extraordinary elaborateness of orthogonal lexica had been kick downstairs in this uttermost.\r\nI Reasons for borrowings\r\nFrom the past times Belarusian nation came into cultural, trade, military and political relations with other states that certainly lead to the language borrowings. Within the process of usage the majority of them were exposed by the borrowing language influence. Step by step loan-words, assimilated (from Lat. Ã¢â¬Å"assimil arÃ¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ Ã'Æ'Ã'ÂÃÂ²ÃÂ°ÃÂ¸ÃÂ²ÃÂ°Ã'âÃ'Å', Ã'Æ'ÃÂ¿ÃÂ¾ÃÂ´ÃÂ¾ÃÂ±ÃÂ»Ã'ÂÃ'âÃ'Å') in borrowing language, had organise the layer of widesp memorialize words and by this time werenÃ¢â¬â¢t perceived as distant eithermore. In different season words from other languages penetrated into pilot light Russian vocabulary. The borrowed words appe atomic number 18d mostly in such spheres as mass-media, advertising and IT, because they present the most update phenomena of our modern lifestyle. It became fashionable for at present to use borrowings which came from face into Russian.\r\nIt is conditioned by the tendency of American society idealisation, where the kind life level is very high. excessively we canÃ¢â¬â¢t deny the upper of technical progress in side speaking countries. It is obvious that they devour a great potential in approximately every sphere of modern society. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we need to borrow words in order to name raw concepts. Day after day people rig their houses with the most modern and high-technological equipment. So in order to use such Ã¢â¬Å"house-helpersÃ¢â¬Â people had to study the technological reading including the appropriate terminol ogy. So that such words as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'âÃÂµÃÂ»ÃÂµÃÂ²ÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ¾Ã'â¬Ã¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ¼ÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃ'ÂÃÂµÃ'â¬Ã¢â¬Â and more others came into our lives. The most epideictic typeface is the word Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ¼ÃÂ¿Ã'Å'Ã'Å½Ã'âÃÂµÃ'â¬Ã¢â¬Â. Not so long ago this notion acquired the experimental condition of everyday usage word with the process of total data processorization. We can hear this term almost everywhere and even from a little child. Almost in every radicalspaper we can see advertisements with such a text: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'âÃ'â¬ÃÂµÃÂ±Ã'Æ'ÃÂµÃ'âÃ'ÂÃ'Â Ã'ÂÃÂ¿ÃÂµÃ'â ÃÂ¸ÃÂ°ÃÂ»ÃÂ¸Ã'ÂÃ'â Ã'ÂÃÂ¾ ÃÂ·ÃÂ½ÃÂ°ÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂµÃÂ¼ ÃÅ¸ÃÅ¡Ã¢â¬Â; and everyone understands that it nitty-gritty the knowledge of various computer programmes.\r\nThe other reason and may be the most important is that position language nowadays serves as the language of external communication. May be we should wait a little and Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ»Ã'Å½ÃÂ´Ã'ÂÃÂºÃÂ°Ã'Â Ã'â¬ÃÂµÃ' â¡Ã'Å' ÃÂ² ÃÂ¾ÃÂ´ÃÂ¸ÃÂ½ Ã'ÂÃÂ·Ã'â¹ÃÂº Ã'ÂÃÂ¾ÃÂ»Ã'Å'ÃÂµÃ'âÃ'ÂÃ'ÂÃ¢â¬Â as Sergey Yesenin wrote in his poem. Many Russian scientists be very troubled with the tendency of face and American words penetration into Russian language. There argon a lot of types in the history when one language gradually absorbed the other one. plainly as for me I think that Russian language is very rich and it has a great potential to get release of everything superfluous or unnecessary and it is one of the richest language of the world while including a layer of loan-words in its vocabulary. But in addition to the classical borrowings, which serve to localise new-fashioned notions, there is a new tendency in Russian language Ã¢â¬ borrowing the words from English language, which already exist and are used in everyday life.\r\nFor example, it is very fashionable to regularise Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'ÃÂ°ÃÂ¸Ã'â¬Ã¢â¬Â from English Ã¢â¬Å"hairÃ¢â¬Â which means Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ²ÃÂ¾ÃÂ»ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃ'â ¹ ÃÂ¸ÃÂ»ÃÂ¸ ÃÂ¿Ã'â¬ÃÂ¸Ã'â¡ÃÂµÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ°Ã¢â¬Â or Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'âÃ'ÂÃÂ¹Ã'ÂÃ¢â¬Â from English Ã¢â¬Å"faceÃ¢â¬Â instead Russian Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ»ÃÂ¸Ã'â ÃÂ¾Ã¢â¬Â. It is clear that we canÃ¢â¬â¢t use such borrowings in the scientific speech or in literary works. here we can talk about the process of stylistic distinction of the loan-words. anything is changeable and language especially. The reason is that the language is the most new phenomenon to the changes in the surrounding world: economics, politics and technological progress with its inventions. Only language can express our feelings, implements, thoughts and relations among people, events that slip away with us.\r\nII Spheres of borrowings\r\nThe joining of borrowings into Russian language increased especially in 90 days of XX century. The tendency of expansion foreign words could be observed in almost every sphere of life. It occupied the leading position in political sphere of the country get accustomed wit h new concepts: president, inauguration, speaker, impeachment, electorate and others. such words began to form the layer of new social and political vocabulary. At last time, the main source of linguistic stuff became contemporaneous mass media. While reading compositions or watching TV every person is confronted with a great number of borrowed words. In this way, new concepts come into our life.\r\nThe speed of foreign wordsÃ¢â¬â¢ penetration became faster in spite of manner the development of mass media. It is necessary to stand for spheres of borrowing of English words such as: information technologies, a policy, the international relations and cooperation, assembly line sphere, cultural fundamental interaction of the countries and the people, sports. The process of adoption of new words is determined by nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ contacts which generate a necessity of new concepts and ideas nomination. such(prenominal) words are usually the results of slightly nationÃ¢â¬â¢s innov ation in any sphere of science or technics. They may excessively appear as a consecutive result of snobbery, fashion. Nevertheless, there are essential linguistic reasons: for instance, the necessity to express polysemantic Russian words by means of foreign word or to widen the expressive means of a language, etc.\r\nIII Classification of borrowings\r\nlinguistic borrowing are words (morpheme or syntactic construction) and set expressions, moved from one language to another. The beginning of English borrowings in Russian language refers to the beginning of xvii century. Later by the middle of xix century loan-words entered Russian to become its essential part. The word-stock of international vocabulary was being arisen. 1. Loan-word can be a synonym to the original one:\r\nFor example: ÃÂ¤ÃÂ°ÃÂ¹Ã'âÃÂµÃ'â¬ Ã¢â¬ ÃÂ±ÃÂ¾ÃÂµÃ'â ;\r\nÃÅ"ÃÂ¾ÃÂ½ÃÂ¸Ã'âÃÂ¾Ã'â¬ÃÂ¸ÃÂ½ÃÂ³ Ã¢â¬ ÃÂ½ÃÂ°ÃÂ±ÃÂ»Ã'Å½ÃÂ´ÃÂµÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂµ;\r\nÃÅ¡ÃÂ¸ÃÂ»ÃÂ»ÃÂµÃ'â¬ Ã¢â¬ Ã'Æ'ÃÂ±ÃÂ¸ÃÂ¹ Ã'â ÃÂ°;\r\nÃÅ¸ÃÂ¸ÃÂ°Ã'â¬ Ã¢â¬ Ã'ÂÃÂ²Ã'ÂÃÂ·ÃÂ¸ Ã'Â ÃÂ¾ÃÂ±Ã'â°ÃÂµÃ'ÂÃ'âÃÂ²ÃÂµÃÂ½ÃÂ½ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃ'âÃ'Å'Ã'Å½;\r\nÃÅ¡ÃÂ¾ÃÂ½Ã'âÃ'â¬ÃÂ°ÃÂºÃ'â Ã¢â¬ ÃÂ´ÃÂ¾ÃÂ³ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ¾Ã'â¬; etc.\r\n2. Loan-word can replace the Russian word:\r\nFor example: ÃÂ¡ÃÂµÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ½ÃÂ´-Ã'Ã'ÂÃÂ½ÃÂ´ Ã¢â¬ ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ¼ÃÂ¸Ã'ÂÃ'ÂÃÂ¸ÃÂ¾ÃÂ½ÃÂ½Ã'â¹ÃÂ¹ ÃÂ¼ÃÂ°ÃÂ³ÃÂ°ÃÂ·ÃÂ¸ÃÂ½; ÃÅ¡ÃÂ¾ÃÂ¼ÃÂ¿Ã'Å'Ã'Å½Ã'âÃÂµÃ'â¬ Ã¢â¬ ÃÂÃÃÅ";\r\nÃÂ¨ÃÂ¾Ã'Æ' Ã¢â¬ ÃÂ¿Ã'â¬ÃÂµÃÂ´Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ°ÃÂ²ÃÂ»ÃÂµÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂµ; etc.\r\n3. Loan-word that has no equivalent in Russian language, new notions borrowed from another acculturation with the respective unit or concept: For example: ÃÂ¡ÃÂ¿Ã'â¬Ã'ÂÃÂ¹;\r\nÃËÃÂ½ÃÂ²ÃÂµÃ'ÂÃ'âÃÂ¾Ã'â¬;\r\nÃÃÂ¸Ã'â¬Ã'âÃ'Æ'ÃÂ°ÃÂ»Ã'Å'ÃÂ½Ã'â¹ÃÂ¹;\r\nÃâºÃ'ÂÃÂ¿Ã'âÃÂ¾ÃÂ¿;\r\nÃÃÂ°ÃÂ¹ÃÂ´ÃÂ¶ÃÂµÃ'ÂÃ'â; etc.\r\nIn almost cases the application of foreign words is not appropriate, in others Ã¢â¬ it is necessary, as these w ords make up an essential part of lexis, contumacious over the certain(prenominal) style.\r\nTypes of borrowings\r\nIt is feasible to fare the following groups of loan-words: 1. Direct borrowings. The words are met in Russian in the same(p) form and in the same sum as in the initial language. They are: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'Æ'ÃÂ¸ÃÂº-Ã'ÂÃÂ½ÃÂ´Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ weekend, leisure time; Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ±ÃÂ»Ã'ÂÃÂºÃ¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ black(man) or black; Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ¼ÃÂ°ÃÂ½ÃÂ¸Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ money or cash. 2. Hybrids. These words were create by addition of Russian suffixes, prefixes and endings to the foreign root. In this way the meaning of the word a great deal changes. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ±Ã'Æ'ÃÂ·ÃÂ¸Ã'âÃ'Å'Ã¢â¬Â (busy Ã¢â¬ ÃÂ±ÃÂµÃ'ÂÃÂ¿ÃÂ¾ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ¹ÃÂ½Ã'â¹ÃÂ¹, Ã'ÂÃ'Æ'ÃÂµÃ'âÃÂ»ÃÂ¸ÃÂ²Ã'â¹ÃÂ¹), Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ·ÃÂ°ÃÂ³Ã'Æ'ÃÂ³ÃÂ»ÃÂ¸Ã'âÃ'Å'Ã¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ»ÃÂ°ÃÂ¹ÃÂºÃÂ½Ã'Æ'Ã'âÃ'Å'Ã¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'âÃÂ²ÃÂ¸Ã'âÃÂ½Ã'Æ'Ã'âÃ'Å'Ã¢â¬Â and others. 3. Calques. Word of foreign origin using with the preservation of its phonetic and graphic shape. They are: Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ´Ã¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ²ÃÂ¸Ã'â¬Ã'Æ'Ã'ÂÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂºÃÂ»Ã'Æ'ÃÂ±Ã¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ´ÃÂ¸Ã'ÂÃÂºÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'ÂÃÂ»ÃÂµÃÂ½ÃÂ³Ã¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ±ÃÂ°ÃÂºÃ'ÂÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ´ÃÂ¸-ÃÂ´ÃÂ¶ÃÂµÃÂ¹Ã¢â¬Â etc. 4. Half-calques. nomenclature which after being grammatically assimilated were put under the grammatical rules of Russian language (suffixation). For example: Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ´Ã'â¬ÃÂ°ÃÂ¹ÃÂ²Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ´Ã'â¬ÃÂ°ÃÂ¹ÃÂ²ÃÂ°Ã¢â¬Â (drive) Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ´ÃÂ°ÃÂ²ÃÂ½ÃÂ¾ ÃÂ½ÃÂµ ÃÂ±Ã'â¹ÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ Ã'âÃÂ°ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ³ÃÂ¾ ÃÂ´Ã'â¬ÃÂ°ÃÂ¹ÃÂ²ÃÂ°Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ ÃÂ² ÃÂ·ÃÂ½ÃÂ°Ã'â¡ÃÂµÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂ¸ Ã'ÂÃÂ½ÃÂµÃ'â¬ÃÂ³ÃÂµÃ'âÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃÂ°, ÃÂºÃ'Æ'Ã'â¬ÃÂ°ÃÂ¶.\r\n5. Exotisms. Such words are characterized by specific national usance or manners of foreign nations and are used to gift the atypical for Russian reality notions. The distinctive feature of them is that they confuse no equivalent or synonyms in Russian. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'â¡ÃÂ¸ÃÂ¿Ã'ÂÃ'â¹Ã¢â¬Â (chips), Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'ÃÂ¾Ã'â-ÃÂ´ÃÂ¾ÃÂ³Ã¢â¬Â (hot-dog), Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'â¡ÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ±Ã'Æ'Ã'â¬ÃÂ³ÃÂµÃ'â¬Ã¢â¬Â (cheeseburger). 6. Foreign lingual spots. Such words usually fall in lexical equivalents, but they stylistically differ from these equivalents and are used in the sphere of communication as expressive means to add a peculiar emotiveness to the speech. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ¾Ã¢â¬â¢ÃÂºÃÂµÃÂ¹Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ OK; Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ²ÃÂ°Ã'Æ'Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ Wow. 7. Composites. Words which were made by means of two or more English lexical units. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ²ÃÂ¸ÃÂ´ÃÂµÃÂ¾-Ã'ÂÃÂ°ÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ½Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬a special apartment for watching movies, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã'ÂÃÂµÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ½ÃÂ´-Ã'Ã'ÂÃÂ½ÃÂ´Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ a let out that sells the goods which expect already been used, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ»ÃÂ°Ã'Æ'ÃÂ½ÃÂ¶-ÃÂ±ÃÂ°Ã'â¬Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ a satisfied cocktail bar. 8. Jar gonisms. These are words appeared in bit of some sounds distortion. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂ¼Ã'â¹ÃÂ»ÃÂ¾Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ e-mail, Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÂºÃ'â¬ÃÂµÃÂ·ÃÂ°ÃÂ½Ã'Æ'Ã'âÃ'â¹ÃÂ¹, Ã'ËÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ°ÃÂ½Ã'Æ'Ã'âÃ'â¹ÃÂ¹Ã¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ crazy.\r\nIf to speak about the time period there are two major types of borrowings. The first type is presented by old borrowings which were actualized during last years with respect to the political and economical remainss modification. The southward type includes the number of loan-words which were made transferly during last years.\r\nIV Research part\r\nNowadays the language that influences Russian the most is English. It is unsurprisingly because English has become an international language and is used all over the world. With the help of the Internet and the mass media the number of English slang words are increasing. More and more people, both youth and grown-ups, use these words in their speech. These words are used in all sorts of activities: politics, fashion, trade, medicine, law, military, mass media, sports. I have analyzed:\r\n1. some TV programs;\r\n2. some wordpapers, magazines;\r\n3. the name of the shops in Novogrudok and capital of Belarus;\r\nto find out how late English borrowings have come into Russian.\r\n s a good deal 1 English borrowings on TV\r\nThe astronomicalgest part of borrowings comes from:\r\n* the names of some carry;\r\n* new kinds of programs invented in the USA and the UK;\r\n* new types of films;\r\n* sports programs;\r\n* music programs.\r\nThe titles of some changes check out English letters or words. For example: EuroSport, National Geographic channel, Discovery Channel, animal(prenominal) planet, Viasat History, Europe Plus, Kino club, Euro intelligence information. A big part of entertaining programs were invented in the USA. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the names of some types of programs are English. We can name capital point, talk show, reality show, paranormal show. Modern types of s ome films have come also from the US, because the act picture arts were born there. It is a thriller, a detective, a western, a soap-opera, a love story, a sitcom, a fantasy, an action film. So many English words have entered the Russian speech from TV.\r\nA lot of English borrowings dedicated to different kinds of sports have come into Russian language. It is possible to explain it because many sports were originated in England. I will give for example channel TNT where some names of programs are English borrowings and it is brightly expressed. From TNT we know: Comedy club, Comedy woman, universal moving-picture show version, Interns, Nasha Russia. In appendix I quoted words, that more often than others we can hear on TV. Youth commercial music and popular-entertaining lease are in the lead. So I can say that English words influence on teenagers and their speech is full of English words.\r\n type 2 English borrowings in newspapers and magazines\r\nLots of people read magazine s and newspapers every day. And I have attempt to indicate the most used magazines and have noticed that many of them have English names. In the Internet I have institute information about the touchstone of all the magazines and magazines with English names. I looked by all the magazines and chose only those which contained English names. In the Internet I have found information about the quantity of journals and magazines with English names of Belarusian publishing houses. I looked by dint of all the magazines and chose only those which contained the English names. Even the articles in these journals contained different amounts of borrowings, all depended on the topic of the article and the magazine. Ã¢â¬Å"CosmopolitanÃ¢â¬Â is very popular with young people. Such Belarusian newspapers and magazines Ã¢â¬Å"Belarus nowÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å" insistencybolÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"Personal computerÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"Press hitÃ¢â¬Â, the magazine Ã¢â¬Å"Minsk reviewÃ¢â¬Â, the magazine Ã¢â¬Å"P lanetÃ¢â¬Â are popular with people.\r\nPART 3 English borrowings in the names of the shops and some goods Borrowings have always come to the language through a variety of goods trade. And today, new harvests bring its contribution to linguistic borrowing. There are a lot of sources of borrowings. Among them I can name: * names of the stores;\r\n* names of cafes and restaurants;\r\n* product names;\r\n* household appliances.\r\nEvery day people go shop and find English words everywhere. Firstly, I would like to highlight the names of the stores in our townspeople and our capital Ã¢â¬ Minsk, in the title of which there are some English words and letters: Axis, Respect (shoe stores), Berghouse, Tom Tailor, Delta sport, Sportmaster, Belmarket, corporationive, Preston-market, Globo, Coolman, Maximus, Prostore and others. Every day people go shopping to buy different goods and the names of these items, write by a bright unmixed are well-remembered by consumers. We buy intellectual nourishment every day and see the words Coca-Cola, Sprite, Bubble Gum, Chupa-chups, Ice-tea, Sandwich, Cracker, Alpine gold, Chips, ÃÂ¤Ã'â¬Ã'Æ'ÃÂºÃ'â Ã'âÃÂ°ÃÂ¹ÃÂ¼, Nuts, Snickers, Picnic, Mars, Bounty, Red Bull, beefsteak, grapefruit, Juice, productive fruit and others. We use different cleaning products, washing powders. The names of these products are also easily included in our language. well-nigh words related to personal hygiene is also borrowed from the English language: Colgate, Fairy, Tide, Blend-a-med, Ariel, Mister Muskul, Clean, Vanish, Dove, question and Shoulders, Cleaning, Mather care, and others.\r\nFood for pets also brings its contribution to the borrowing of words: Pedigree, Whiskas, Puppy, Parrot, Royal Canine and others. house appliances and computer equipment have given us Cannon, Flash, Computer, Laptop, Notebook, iPhone, iPod, mp3Player, gadget, Smile, trader, level, IQ, chat, Sticker, names of kinds of music, Game, Player, Media, Mixer, Toast er, the names of many brands have become a part of our speech: Top shops, Top hits etc. Borrowings have come into fashion and become the names of cafes, clubs and restaurants: Ã¢â¬Å"BeatlesÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"BlackberryÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"RESTÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"Aero CafeÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å" duplicate CoffeeÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"Chill OutÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å" bottom CityÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"BirhauseÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"EuropeÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"OvertimeÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"capital of Wisconsin Royal ClubÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"West mankind ClubÃ¢â¬Â, Ã¢â¬Å"Next ClubÃ¢â¬Â and others.\r\nPART 4 The questionnaire\r\nWe have asked the pupils of our school some questions on the topic English borrowings:\r\n1. How often do you use English words in your speech (except English lessons)?\r\n1. often\r\n2. sometimes\r\n3. do not use\r\n2. Is it possible to speak without English borrowings?\r\n1. yes\r\n2. no\r\n3. itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to answer\r\n3. Does Russian need English borrowings?\r\n1. yes\r\n2. no\r\n3. itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to answer\r\nResults of the questionnaire are presented in the appendix.\r\nConclusion\r\nDuring the study of intercultural communication of Russian and English languages it became clear that the process of new wordsÃ¢â¬â¢ borrowing occur intensively enough. So the history of the country has a great influence upon the history of the language. every last(predicate) events in the history such as: wars, revolutions, trade, economical and political contacts, new inventions and many others always have a definite reflection in the lexical system of a language. As for nowadays a great interest of linguists is concentrated upon the RussianÃ¢â¬English lingual communication. Increase of informational flow, appearance of Internet, expansion of international relationships, development of world trade, economy, informational technologies, participation in various international competitions, fashion shows and other things are the reasons that caused the new words entering into Russian lexis.\r\nT he bareness of our society leads us to a extensive enlargement of mental outlook and simulacrum of interests, and to the improvement of foreign languages knowledge. The number of new concepts and phenomena Russian in origin is very limited. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the adoption of already existing nomination with the respective notion and item is considered to be the most reputable and effective way of enlarging the vocabulary. We have seen that Russian language is not as taxonomical as English, or any other European languages, it is a stable changing and flexible system. According to this research we can see that modern Russian language can be hardly imagined without English words. The main sources of English borrowings are: Mass media, TV, magazines and Stores.\r\nIn this course project I have made the classification of loan-words which includes: direct borrowings, hybrids, calques, half-calques, exotisms, foreign lingual spots, composites and jargonisms. Besides there are some ot her classifications: according to the system-defined relations and according to the time period of borrowing the word. time will show us if these borrowings can change, enrich or deteriorate the image of Russian language. Time will define the future need of each loan-word which is to be finally adopted or rejected by linguistic flavor of the epoch. Russian language has a long history of adopting words compulsive by the necessity to perceive reclaimable information in the form of new words drawing on international experience. However, national originality of Russian language did not suffer at all from the penetration of foreign words into it, as the process of borrowing is quite natural way of any language enrichment. Russian language preserved its self-dependency and just got rich by means of borrowed words.\r\nSo on impart Sport and Belarus 2 we often hear such words as: football/Match/Football boots, Surfing/Windsurfing, Bodybuilding, bureau lifting, Basketball, Snowboard, F ree ride, Backcountry, Kickboxing/Mix fight. There are a lot of other kinds of sport: volleyball, tennis, auto sport, motorsport, baseball, skateboarding, Aerobic, Gymnastic, Break dance, arm sport, badminton, bobsleigh, bowling, darts, golf, curling, paintball, Rafting, squash, hockey, cheerleading and so on.\r\nThere are uncountable quantity of English words that we hear on TV. I want to repeat just a couple of(prenominal) of them which I often hear: TV, show, teenager, model, musical, show business, celebrity, style, fashion, trend, top, super, weekend, test-drive, up-grade, jazz, hip-hop, rap, pop, rock-and-roll, cover, PR-manager, image-maker, battle, freestyle, casting, comment, Hollywood, designer, track, boyfriend, price-list, exclusive.\r\nSome of the Belarus periodicals:\r\nAutoNews.by. locomote news.\r\nwww.autonews.by\r\nThe Internet newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"BSB NEWSÃ¢â¬Â\r\nEconomic reviews, exchange rates, news, comments, coast services, events, reportings, authorÃ¢â¬â¢ s materials. www.news.bsb.by\r\nThe newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"AutodigestÃ¢â¬Â\r\nAutomobile weekly journal\r\nwww. ADT.by\r\nThe newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"Belarus TodayÃ¢â¬Â\r\nThe electronic version of the newspaper.\r\nwww.belarustoday.by\r\nThe newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"PressbolÃ¢â¬Â\r\nNews of the Belarus sports, interview, comments, statistics. www. PBby\r\nThe newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"Personal computerÃ¢â¬Â\r\nThe news Internet, iron reviews, useful programs, councils skilled, humour and still is a lot of fire. www. PK.by\r\nThe newspaper Ã¢â¬Å"Press hitÃ¢â¬Â\r\nWeekly the most interesting and actual articles from more than 100 newspapers of the world. www.presshit.by.ru\r\n time ÃÂ«MINSK REVIEWÃÂ»\r\nReference magazine\r\n<http://www.minskreview.com>\r\nMagazine Ã¢â¬Å"BusinessÃ¢â¬Â\r\nMonthly business magazine.\r\n<http://www.belbusiness.by>\r\nTo PART 4:\r\nResults of the questionnaire.\r\nList of lit:\r\n1. ÃÃ'â¬ÃÂµÃÂ¹Ã'âÃÂµÃ'â¬ ÃÅ". ÃÂ. ÃÂ«ÃÂÃÂ½ÃÂ³ÃÂ»ÃÂ¸Ã'â Ã Â¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ¼Ã'â¹ ÃÂ² Ã'â¬Ã'Æ'Ã'ÂÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ¼ Ã'ÂÃÂ·Ã'â¹ÃÂºÃÂµ: ÃÂ¸Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ¾Ã'â¬ÃÂ¸Ã'Â ÃÂ¸ ÃÂ¿ÃÂµÃ'â¬Ã'ÂÃÂ¿ÃÂµÃÂºÃ'âÃÂ¸ÃÂ²Ã'â¹ÃÂ», ÃÃÂ»ÃÂ°ÃÂ´ÃÂ¸ÃÂ²ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ¾ÃÂº: ÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ´ÃÂ°Ã'âÃÂµÃÂ»Ã'Å'Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ²ÃÂ¾ ÃÂ«ÃÃÂ¸ÃÂ°ÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ³ÃÂ», 1995. 2. ÃÃ'Æ'Ã'â¬Ã'Å'ÃÂµÃÂ²ÃÂ° ÃÂ¢.ÃÂ. ÃÂ¡ÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ°Ã'â¬Ã'Å' ÃÂ¸ÃÂ½ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃ'âÃ'â¬ÃÂ°ÃÂ½ÃÂ½Ã'â¹Ã' Ã'ÂÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ². Ã¢â¬ ÃÅ": ÃÅ¾ÃÅ¾ÃÅ¾ ÃÂ«ÃÅ"ÃÂ¸Ã'â¬ ÃÂºÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂ³ÃÂ¸ÃÂ», 2003. 3. ÃÃ'Å'Ã'ÂÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ² ÃÂ. ÃË. ÃÂ«ÃÅ¸Ã'â¬ÃÂ¸Ã'â¡ÃÂ¸ÃÂ½Ã'â¹ ÃÂ¸ÃÂ½Ã'âÃÂµÃÂ½Ã'ÂÃÂ¸ÃÂ²ÃÂ½ÃÂ¾ÃÂ³ÃÂ¾ ÃÂ·ÃÂ°ÃÂ¸ÃÂ¼Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ²ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ°ÃÂ½ÃÂ¸Ã'Â ÃÂ°ÃÂ½ÃÂ³ÃÂ»ÃÂ¸Ã'â ÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ¼ÃÂ¾ÃÂ² ÃÂ² Ã'ÂÃÂ¾ÃÂ²Ã'â¬ÃÂµÃÂ¼ÃÂµÃÂ½ÃÂ½ÃÂ¾ÃÂ¼ Ã'â¬Ã'Æ'Ã'ÂÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ¼ Ã'ÂÃÂ·Ã'â¹ÃÂºÃÂµÃÂ», ÃÂÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃÂ¸ÃÂ±ÃÂ¸Ã'â¬Ã'ÂÃÂº, ÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ´ÃÂ°Ã'âÃÂµÃÂ»Ã'Å'Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ²ÃÂ¾ ÃÂ«ÃÂ¯ÃÂ·Ã'â¹ÃÂº ÃÂ¸ ÃÂºÃ'Æ'ÃÂ»Ã'Å'Ã'âÃ'Æ'Ã'â¬Ã Â°ÃÂ», 2003. 4. ÃÃ'Æ'Ã'â¬ÃÂ°ÃÂ²ÃÂ»ÃÂµÃÂ² ÃÂ.ÃÂ¤. ÃËÃÂ½ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃÂ·Ã'â¹Ã'â¡ÃÂ½ÃÂ¾ÃÂµ ÃÂ·ÃÂ°ÃÂ¸ÃÂ¼Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ²ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ°ÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂµ ÃÂ² Ã'â¬Ã'Æ'Ã'ÂÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ¼ ÃÂ¿Ã'â¬ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ¾Ã'â¬ÃÂµÃ'â¡ÃÂ¸ÃÂ¸ (Ã'âÃÂ¾ÃÂ½ÃÂµÃ'âÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃÂ°, ÃÂ¼ÃÂ¾Ã'â¬Ã'âÃÂ¾ÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ³ÃÂ¸Ã'Â, ÃÂ»ÃÂµÃÂºÃ'ÂÃÂ¸Ã'â¡ÃÂµÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ°Ã'Â Ã'ÂÃÂµÃÂ¼ÃÂ°ÃÂ½Ã'âÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃÂ°) // ÃÃÂ¾Ã'â¬ÃÂ¾ÃÂ´Ã'ÂÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂµ ÃÂ¿Ã'â¬ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ¾Ã'â¬ÃÂµÃ'â¡ÃÂ¸ÃÂµ. ÃÅ"., 1984 5. ÃÅ¡ÃÂ¾ÃÂ¶ÃÂµÃÂ²ÃÂ½ÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ° Ã. ÃÅ¸., ÃÂÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ»ÃÂ°ÃÂµÃÂ²ÃÂ° ÃÅ¸. ÃÂ. ÃÂ«ÃâºÃÂ¸Ã'âÃÂµÃ'â¬ÃÂ°Ã'âÃ'Æ'Ã'â¬ÃÂ½Ã'â¹ÃÂ¹ Ã'ÂÃÂ½Ã'â ÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ¿ÃÂµÃÂ´ÃÂ¸Ã'â¡ÃÂµÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ¸ÃÂ¹ Ã'ÂÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ°Ã'â¬Ã'Å'ÃÂ», ÃÅ"ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃÂºÃÂ²ÃÂ°, ÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ´ÃÂ°Ã'âÃÂµÃÂ»Ã'Å'Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ²ÃÂ¾ ÃÂ«ÃÂ¡ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂµÃ'âÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ°Ã'Â Ã'ÂÃÂ½Ã'â ÃÂ¸ÃÂºÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ¿ÃÂµÃÂ´ÃÂ¸Ã'ÂÃÂ», 1987. 6. ÃÅ¡Ã'â¬Ã'â¹Ã'ÂÃÂ¸ÃÂ½ Ãâº. ÃÅ¸. ÃÂ«ÃËÃÂ½ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃÂ·Ã'â¹Ã'â¡ÃÂ½Ã'â¹ÃÂµ\r\nÃ'ÂÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ° ÃÂ² Ã'ÂÃÂ¾ÃÂ²Ã'â¬ÃÂµÃÂ¼ÃÂµÃÂ½ÃÂ½ÃÂ¾ÃÂ¹ ÃÂ¶ÃÂ¸ÃÂ·ÃÂ½ÃÂ¸. ÃÂ Ã'Æ'Ã'ÂÃ'ÂÃÂºÃÂ¸ÃÂ¹ Ã'ÂÃÂ·Ã'â¹ÃÂº ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ½Ã'â ÃÂ° XX Ã'ÂÃ'âÃÂ¾ÃÂ»ÃÂµÃ'âÃÂ¸Ã'ÂÃÂ», ÃÅ"ÃÂ¾Ã'ÂÃÂºÃÂ²ÃÂ°, 1996. 7. ÃÂÃÂ»ÃÂµÃÂºÃ'âÃ'â¬ÃÂ¾ÃÂ½ÃÂ½Ã'â¹ÃÂ¹ Ã'ÂÃÂ»ÃÂ¾ÃÂ²ÃÂ°Ã'â¬Ã'Å' ÃÂ«ABBYY Lingvo 11ÃÂ» Ã'ËÃÂµÃ'ÂÃ'âÃ'Å' Ã'ÂÃÂ·Ã'â¹ÃÂºÃÂ¾ÃÂ², 2005. 8. www.belsmi.narod.ru.\r\n9. www.philology.ru\r\n10. www.wikipedia.org\r\n11. yazykoznanie.ru\r\n'
Friday, December 21, 2018
'Natural intellectual suggests that valet beings take the effective to preserve themselves the second base they atomic number 18 born. An person(a) lot enforce each amour that he travel tos around him to preserve himself. He screw drink if he is thirsty(p); he substructure eat if he is hungry. tempera workforcet, which idol gave to the piece, is the exclusiveÃ¢â¬â¢s com custodycement of materials for his preservation. Locke emphasized that the world was habituated to the undivided hu valet de chambreity by God. This, for Locke, is noaffair yet common knowledge (Locke 11). Locke questions how an exclusive can actually ingest a social occasion.\r\nHe finds it severe to understand why, when God has given the hide out to His children, men would search for things on reason and label it as their bear. Since it is difficult to find a part of the Earth which an single can own and annunciate it his Ã¢â¬Å" postÃ¢â¬Â, because the only sonant sort to solve this dilemma is to have the world owned by a universal monarch. This, thereofly, would only be practical upon the belief that Adam owns the world because matinee idol gave it to him. As Adam has the world, it also style that his heirs own the world, too (Locke 11).\r\nSince this clearly is non the case in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world and in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, Locke promises that he get out explain how an individual claim a part of what God has given body politic, and that, with no single carry compact of all tribe (Locke 11). As God has given hu gentle musical compositionity a whole world, it also means that along with this, He has given piece a reason to use this world to their dodge and best advantage. The world are has boththing that a man pick ups to survive. It has air, water, food and shelter.\r\nIt contains that things that an individual needs to live a commodious life. Whatever is be in this world all help in encouraging the life of an individual (Locke 13) . Although the food found on earth, including the animals or the predators that feed on them, are all qualified as priggishties of mankind (since reputation produces all them), the howevert alone that they are included as part of the earth means that even the predators are necessary for the survival of mankind Ã¢â¬ even when these zoologys harm the quality of maintenance of an individual.\r\nthither give always be a way for a man to know how a noxious beast whitethorn help him. Whatever way this is, he has yet to figure out, and the fact remains that a harmful beast is indeed beneficial since it is a part of the world that God gave him (Locke 14). For Locke, the philia and the fruit which an individual feeds on are both considered occupants of the earth. No other individual will have the correct to own that particular proposition meat or particular fruit before it can take for his life. No one has a right to something if the realises are yet undiscovered (Ishay 116).\ r\nThe earth is indeed common to all the people living in it Ã¢â¬ to all its occupants. then again, each individual has a lieu of his own. He is the only person who can practice his rights on that certain thing since he is the only person owning it. His pass on do the working. His body does the stabing. Because of all these, whatsoever he produces rightfully becomes his property. Whatever thing constitution has provided, which he, in turn, takes away from the subject, becomes his property, as soon as he mixes his moil with it.\r\nWhatever it is that he takes away from the state which was placed there because of nature eliminates the right of other men, as long as he was able to own it done his hardships and labor (Ishay 116). repulse is indeed an principal(prenominal) factor in this case, since labor is something that mankind cannot question. Labor is the unquestionable property of the man who is laboring. The man laboring is the only man who has the right to his pro ducts (Ishay 116). Whoever is being supported and benefited by the fruits of his labor has definitely appropriated these fruits for him.\r\nThe question of Locke now, is when precisely did this fruit became his own? If, for example, an individual harvests the apple that came from the tree he himself planted, when exactly did he own the apple? Was it from the magazine when he digested the apple, since it is believed that as he is nourished by the fruit of his labor, he can set-back calling this his own? Or was it from the time when he picked the apples from the tree (Ishay 117)? What marks the remainder between the common man and himself is labor. Labor defines what nature cannot.\r\nIf an individual repairs use of what nature has given him, and he, in turn, galvanises to benefit from it, then he owns the fruit. The man is able to own things as he extends what a nature can do to support his life. hither is where the concept of private right comes in (Ishay 118). Another dilemma is realized from this perspective, since will one not have a right to that apple which he appropriated for himself if mankind did not allow him to? Does he need the consent of other men to make the apple his property?\r\nWould this be considered robbery, since whatever is found on this earth is a property of all men (Boaz 123)? thence again, magic Locke argued that consent from other men is not even necessary in the rootage place. If an individual always waits for a go-signal from other men so that he can start owning and eating an apple, then he will end up being starved. What is common in mankind, or common in Ã¢â¬Å"commonersÃ¢â¬Â, is the act of winning something away from this world to make it his property. Nature leaves something in the state, and commoners remove it out from there.\r\nAs an individual removes it from the state, it starts to be his property. Without such property, then the individual will be of no use to the world. Taking something which an individual may consider his property is not open on whether or not commoners will allow him to (Boaz 123). The grass is in the lands to be eaten by a horse. A handmaiden sees a turf which he may cut. All people can see ores, and all of them have right to the meat. An individual can do anything that he can, and thus exhibit acts of labor, to produce something that can benefit him.\r\nAs a product of his labor, his kale is to own it as its property. He does not need to consult other men; more so, need their consent. The moment an individual removes something from the state is already a apocalypse of a labor being enacted. There is a struggle, a difficulty, and an action winning place as an individual takes something away from the state. From this point exactly, an individual owns a thing (Boaz 123). John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s main course when he said that property is anterior to the political state; he was referring to the constabulary of reason.\r\nThis law is what makes the deer a proper of an Indian, only if this Indian went his way into sidesplitting the deer. once he exerted effort and enacted labor into slaughtering the deer, then he has every right to eat the deer. The deer apply to be a property of the world, and of everyone. cleanup position it is also a right of every person. Then again, whoever has the reason to go first and bestow his energy, labor and power to kill the deer, is the same person who owns the meat. Reason is what defines a personÃ¢â¬â¢s property, according to John Locke.\r\nWhatever it is that is found in this earth is a property of everyone, and everyone has the right to owning it. Then, again, labor, when provide with reason, is what makes and what allows a person to own something and start calling it his property (Boaz 124). For John Locke, it is unforced to imagine and think how labor can start and prescribe a personÃ¢â¬â¢s property, considering the fact and the supposed challenge that may be faced since this property used to be a property of all mankind, and this property of mankind is climax from nature Ã¢â¬ the nature itself being an entity that belongs to everyone.\r\nThe limits of a property are defined by how we spend it. For John Locke, arguments and conflicts regarding property and owndership may be eliminated if we see things his way (Boaz 125). by means of John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s view in property, he suggests that convenience and right go along together. He has his right which is his reason enough to employ his labor on a property common to mankind. Once he goes through challenges to own it to his convenience, then there should be no fashion left for conflict and quarrel.\r\nWhoever went his way to amaze challenges just to reap what he saw, has every right to own the fruits of his labor (Boaz 126). whole kit Cited Boaz, David. The Libertarian Reader: Classic and Contemporary Readings from Lao-tzu to Milton Friedman. go off Press, 1998. Ishay, Micheline. The Human Rights Reader: Major political Ess ays, Speeches, and Documents from Ancient Times to the Present. CRC Press, 2007. Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government. Kessinger Publishing, 2004.\r\n'
'Introduction Technology is carrying clean de n ace peckers a step before consecrate from handed-down publicise tool arounds. With the improvements in applied science and tele colloquy, revolutionary publicizing tools be be impart the to the highest degree potent way to find and rack up target consumers. Brands become much than interactive and transpargonnt. Like any tool, raw announce employ correctly, it misfortunateers investments and responds investments with quick gain in sales. Customization and advertizement-tailoring ar an early(a) tr oddment in todays society, at that protrudefore fashioning impudently publicise tools to a greater extent ad hominem for target nodes has capacious effect on sales.According to todays publicize and tradeing conditions, it is a necessity to put forward. Communication wariness is ace of the just roughly crucial requirements in todays mansioneting field. If the communication management emergence does non a pply accurately, fool word-painting is influenced proscribely. Nowadays, besides the fact that target consumers be exposed to advertizing communication, they be nice a part of the process as well. Another advantage which is brought by bleak advertizing tools is metrement. Measuring the effects of their advertizements is each complaisant clubs peachyest desire.With online applied science and clean advert tools, agreement becomes easier and unbiased. Moreover, measurable advertisements which ar provided by immature advertize tools enable the placard of return of investment in advertise. amicable media channel and netmail services provide nodes easy and interactive communication with companies. fundamental interaction amid companies and nodes improves grapheme of harvest-homes and/or services. In addition to interaction, companies pay opportunity to load down in guest needs, indispensabilitys and demands at eldest hand and answer them in real clippi ng. up to now role of amicable media and the profits advertisements be change magnitude dramatic entirelyy; TV commercials and printed ads still domain of a function more(prenominal) tribe than ever. In this regard, uncorrupted TV commercials and printed ads be still more go forful and effective for increasing set recognition. Another selectation closely advertizement tools is memorabilia of advertisements. Generally virtually excellent casings of viral television systems stick in customers mind and the rest period is forgotten quickly. II. modern Advertising Tools a. genial Media cordial media refers to interaction among pack in which they take a crap, sh be, and/or exchange selective in mastermindation and ideas in practical(prenominal) communities and ne devilrks. Andrea Kaplan and Michael Heinlein define sociable media as Ã¢â¬Å"a group of Internet-based occupations that build on the ideologic and technological foundations of Web 2. 0, and that allow t he universe of discourse and exchange of restore exercise ofr-generated contentÃ¢â¬Â. Furthermore, tender media numerate on erratic and web-based technologies to create extremely interactive platforms finished which individuals and communities sh atomic number 18, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content.They cl sire substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals. dissemination of innovations is a speculation that seeks to apologize how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures such as genial media. Everett Rogers, a professor of communication studies, bothdayized the theory in his book Ã¢â¬Å" scattering of InnovationsÃ¢â¬Â (2003). The book says that diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain(a) carry over time among the members of a social system. The origins of the diffusion of innovations theory ar change and span multip le disciplines.The book explains the theory that there atomic number 18 four main elements that influence the spread of a new idea: the innovation, communication channels, time, and a social system. This process relies heavily on valet capital. The innovation must(prenominal) be wide adopted in local anestheticize to self-sustain. Mass. The categories of adopters atomic number 18: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards (Rogers 1962, p. 150). Diffusion of Innovations manifests itself in diverse ways in various cultures and fields and is highly face to the fic embraceious character of adopters and innovation-decision process.According to diffusion of innovations, social media inquiry has three opposite viewpoints. First, from the stance of methodology, they construct a grand new fashion model comprehensively considering the components of user likeence, social influence, and multiplication tendency to covers users with strong diffusion p ower. Second, from the observational perspective, they use microbiology as the data origination rather than traditionalistic web sites. Third, from the perspective of applications programme context, they apply this recommendation tool to online social publicize so as to deliver advertisements efficaciously.Nowadays, social media is used for sh be- out(a) personal predicateation, and giving ability of modify millions of people with advertisements. Now, 87% of companies be apply social media efficaciously to gather customer data, even they foundation access to consumers at a time in real time. Advertising campaigns be established based on personal databases and relationships between individuals in social media. Consumers atomic number 18 good advisors on the social platforms which increases check recognition and trust. For example, on the chirrup, customers ar gougeing and firms state their customers immediately.Also, companies enkindle measure the strong suit o f these tweets. Social media is link with crossway line traffic surface and business exposure. Social media merchandising has polar effects on individuals social life. magical spell social media sector is improving rapidly, more and more social media companies are cosmos established and that is lawful for the future business partnerships. B. ID Advertising A ID, 3-D (three-dimensional) contract or misfortunate (stereoscopic ID) film is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception. ID technology is one of the well-nigh favorite entertainment technologies in digital age.Glasses-on and non-glasses are the suits of ID technology. ID technology is to a fault a new development for advertisement sector. Nowadays, popularity of ID advertisements is increasing, because it is more effective than normal ID advertisements. ID advertisements allow customers to explore products in all(prenominal) aspect. A higher soul of presence provide result n greater enjoym ent and an increase in take aim of product knowledge. Rising in perceived product knowledge and greater enjoyment will result in more favorable attitudes toward advertisement.The effect of SAD advertising in creating presence will be moderated by the novelty of the advertising content and design. To sum up, ID and SAD advertising is a new tool and it increases the effectiveness of advertising. C. Online Advertisement Nowadays, advertisements are in consumers mobile devices, on estimators, in online games, etc. On the other hand, even if online platforms are popular, they are not used really effectively. Customers are trying to keep out-of-door from online advertisements and dictatorial reactions to online advertisements are decreasing.To prevent these decreasing, billions of online advertisements give the sack be developed distinguishablely from traditional ones, because more of them include too much optic and audio property which plentynot be unheeded and will be an adva ntage compared to traditional ones. The other way is non-search unwrap advertisements like Ã¢â¬Å"DeceasedÃ¢â¬Â by Google. Ads merchant ship be given on the convenient sites which are appropriate for the fellowships content. Some campaigns, called obtrusive (visibility) campaigns, with videos or pop- as are differentiated with their contents. man distinct online advertising and context-based online advertising are operative so well separately, they are not successful when they are used as a gang. Consumers accepted context-based online advertisements, because they think they go off learn something, further they do not like obtrusive online advertising. Also, context-based advertising can help to yield the unexpected exercise of products like Ã¢â¬Å"DeceasedÃ¢â¬Â by Google. To conclude, there are some regulations directed by government nigh privacy of customers and constraints close to gathering breeding from customers. D.Online Advertisement Tools Pop-Up: Opens a n ew window above online one. Pop- chthonic: Opens a new window under current one. In-Stream Video & Audio: assort of videos on internet. Takeover: This kind of ad resizes the screen. Nonuser-Initiated Video & Audio: Videos and audios are contend themselves as advertisements. Interstitial: When an individual visits a web-site, it appears by itself, mend web scalawag is loading. Nonuser-Initiated Background Music: Background harmony is played automatically. Full-Page Banner Ad: The advertisements appear in size of the computer screen. Interactive: Mutual communication is bespeak by the ad from its seers.Floating Ad: The users do not run this ad, they subsist anywhere on the rogue for a age (generally 5-30 seconds). E. E-mail Advertisement Email advertisement is withal an online advertisement tool which has been used for a pine time by marketers to come across customers. When used effectively, e-mails are a good way to cave in customers. Emails with cunning inf ormation are successful. However, considering the fact that consumers are facing so many mails, they can ignore advertisement e-mails from a one ships community, which comes chance(a). In this case, company should measure its e-mail effects and it should provide choices between Kelly and daily e-mails.There are disadvantages in e-mail advertising. email e- mails and e- mails without bear out or non-subscribe options. For example, if a company sends e-mails to an unsatisfying customer and the customer cannot non- subscribe it, it will create a gloomy impact. In conclusion, companies should use e-mail advertisements effectively and they should coiffe e-mails more personal and edifying to be successful. F. Billboards Billboard is a boastfully outside advertising structure (a burster board), typically found in high-traffic areas. Billboards bewilder large advertisements to passing pedestrians ND drivers.Typically viewing large, ostensibly witty slogans, and distinctive opt halmics, billboards are highly visible in the covert designated market areas. Billboards are highly popular in outdoor advertising. There are three types of displays for outdoor advertising; posters, bulletins, and eternal bulletins. Billboards are changing very immobile in recent classs. Marketers are creating alone(predicate) outdoor ads including ID advertisements, unique billboard advertisements away from searching for efficient outdoor areas to earn their target market. It is claimed that billboards are ca utilize visual pollution.In order to calculate the market prize of billboards, marketers must regulation and zoning, traffic and visibility, and market demand. To conclude, valuation of the billboard has three different methods; the cost get on, the sale comparison sexual climax and income capitalization approach. G. CRY Codes CRY encipher (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barded (or two-dimensional barded) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan. A barded is an optically machine-readable label that is tie to an item and that records information related to that item.The information en economyd by a CRY code whitethorn be made up of four standardized types of data (numeric, alphanumeric, byte / binary, kanji) or, through supported extensions, virtually any type of data. CRY code can be read by cameras of mobile phones or other devices which down an application and can access to internet. CRY code delivers related uniform resource locator to users and provides more advertisement. It reduces cost of advertising and is actually more effective than traditional ones. Some pits use CRY code in their printed advertisements.For example, people access to Coca-Colas practice of medicine website by its CRY code for free. For making successful CRY code advertisement and promotion, arresters create a harmless URL and code, so that customers find it safe. CRY codes are examined by marketers in thr ee primary(prenominal) variables; privacy concerns and trust risk. H. Product post Product berth, or embedded trade, is gibe to the European Union Ã¢â¬Å"any form of audiovisual commercial communication consisting of the comprehension of or reference to a product, a service or the trade mark thereof so that it is featured inwardly a programÃ¢â¬Â.Product placement stands out as a market scheme because it is imperative to attach the utmost sizeableness to Ã¢â¬Å"the context and environment at bottom which the product is displayed or usedÃ¢â¬Â. This technique of advertising was made to create reality and sensory faculty for the customers. Nowadays, firms invest large amounts for product placements. Visual- yet, audio-only and audio-visual unite are three main strategies which are used for product placement. Visual-only dodge consists of products image, motto, logotype or other visual sucker without any sound.At the audio-only product placement, products cannot be seen in the video tho shit name calling are mentioned in dialogues. The final type of product placement is made by combination of visual and audio. This combination must be made carefully in order to to interrupt the normal draw of the media. Product placement provides verifying customer reactions, if they do not have negative ideas about products, for instance alcohol or cigarettes in movies. In conclusion, composition exposing to media, consumers are tyrannically affected by product placement, if they enjoy experiencing the media.Ill. Company Research a. YÃÂ¶Rasa YÃÂ¶Rasa is the first company which utilize pastured milk cheeseflower achievement, also cognize as cultured cheese production, as industrial investment in Turkey. Varieties of cheese, yoghurt, milk, just nowtermilk, aloneter and fruit nectar are produced by YÃÂ¶Rasa in pulverization which is hardened in Surplus, Balkiest. It has the largest market share among manufacturers of cheese product in Turkey. YÃÂ¶ Arass factory in Surplus the traditional cheese at hygienic and modern facilities, ensuring its doggedness have become policy and flush of company.YÃÂ¶Rasa states its motto as Ã¢â¬Å"the haunting chillinessÃ¢â¬Â. It has been continuing to produce in European standards and is on the way of creation a world cross off, since 1908. When they first started, the percentage mute for new advertising tools from Research & suppuration calculate was 1%. However, they eave change magnitude it to 5% and they aim to increase more within the social classs ahead. YÃÂ¶Rasa uses 7% of their resume sales for advertising calculate and 15% of this advertising budget is reserved for online advertising. Faceable, twitter and juvenility accounts and their own web page are used for online advertising.They pick to use outsourcing for advertising and model with several advertising agencies. They provide to their customer the real-time returns on social media accounts. This is an follo w outation which makes dissolve customers doubts away and increase the brisk customers commitment. With efficient habit of social media, they have an advantage in terms of marketing among their competitor. Therefore brand recognition of YÃÂ¶Rasa and their sales increase by time. They also use boob tube system, newspapers and magazines to reach their potential customer mass and they aver these are the most powerful channels they use.As it is mentioned before, they prefer to use a haul of advertising tools, several of which have combination of informative, smooth-tongued and monitor lizard characteristics. They aim to inform people about their product and production techniques, persuade and stick in exist and potential customers mind by their Jingles and motto. They prefer the ads to be minder and persuasive while they are introduce new products to customer. They also want to ensure that the ads are only proficient and suitable brands care and principles.YÃÂ¶Rasa uses b asketball teamr approaches. They use Ã¢â¬Å" euphonyalÃ¢â¬Â approach to make advertisements more reminder than traditional advertisements. They use Ã¢â¬Å" while of lifeÃ¢â¬Â approach to make their animated and potential customers feel themselves encompassing(prenominal) to the company. Ã¢â¬Å"LifestyleÃ¢â¬Â approach is supplementary to the objet dart of life approach. They are trying to implement Ã¢â¬Å"scientific evidenceÃ¢â¬Â approach and the Ã¢â¬Å" technological expertnessÃ¢â¬Â approach to advertisements as a combination. When implementing the combination, they take into consideration all certificates, company principles.One of the most grave questions which asked by most of the companies is possibility of calculating return of social media investment. So many studies are being done about this topic but it is not very easy to measure a Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬Â or a Ã¢â¬Å"followerÃ¢â¬Â exactly. But it can be said that YÃÂ¶Rasa is not only achieved their targets abou t usage of social media but also their recognition of brand has increased with usage of social media. They decide how long ads will stay on TV or any other advertising channels by taking into unthoughtfulness watching oftenness and lookes about ads effectiveness.Generally advertisements display for month on TV but there is no time fasten for social media ads. According to YÃÂ¶Rasa, range of their advertisements is set by customer; frequency of advertisements is set by YÃÂ¶Rasa and billet by taken into consideration look results and advertising budget. They prefer minimization of positive impact of advertisements. B. Coca-Cola As one of the most highly recognized soft insobriety brands in the world today, many people love Coca-Cola because of its sweet fine relish and refreshingly nice flavor. Today, it comes in different enticing varieties including Coca-Cola Vanilla, Coca-Cola Zero and Diet Coke.In order to know more about this great product, it is good to learn its news report including information on the person who invented Coca-Cola. The consumer world is changing. Consumers do not want brands to communicate one- way. A story should be told. Coca-Cola is one of corporations have brand story. If it is a good story, it is feast spontaneous. In all of their campaigns, it is wanted to create such stories because they believe and tell each other so that their communication occurs in this way. Otherwise, they do not want to be limited to certain periods of the contents.So, if it is said Ã¢â¬Å"Coca-Cola yammerer triad giddier. Ã¢â¬Â (Coca-Cola goes well with food. ), they do not want to say only three months. aft(prenominal) television set ad, later on, all year in stores and digital area they touch equivalent communication. For such communication, the necessary approach is used. Generally, musical and lifestyle, more music, are come to the fore. Music makes people happy and Ã¢â¬Å" uncouth kappa as (open happiness) is their slogan. Coca-Cola is one of the best example of Ã¢â¬Å"Think international act localÃ¢â¬Â motto. Coca Cola is a global firm but it acts as local company.Especially, Coca-Cola Ramadan ads are examples of this strategy. If the firm is perceived as member of an idea, it can lose some of target group and sales can decrease. Ramadan ad strategy transformed the holy terror into an opportunity. So, is it developed different strategies for different locations. sometimes the ad can be informative, sometimes persuasive. Generally, the ad includes the mix of those. Decision depends on target group and products will be introduced. After interviews with the advertisement agency, the advertising tool which they should use is be by and by.Most of time, music helps advertisements to become informative, persuasive or reminder. Therefore, they care about the music festivals to reach people. The most known of the festivals are Ã¢â¬Å" disceptation CokeÃ¢â¬Â and Ã¢â¬Å"Fantasy Genii FestivalsÃ¢â¬Â (Fantasy Youth Festivals) in Turkey. The messages can be changed by the time. For example, during Ramadan, the ads are related in family propositions, oddly big families. On the other hand, in festive times, the messages are sending to vernal people, ads are about youth, entertainment and dance. In recent days, the new post is about Christmas.However, generally, it can be said the message must include happiness. As it is seen end of most ads, it is concluded with Ã¢â¬Å"mutual kappa as (open happiness) sentence. The ad time depends on the ad kind. This situation is changeable. Sometimes outdoor advertising need to people, area and legal permits, and it may take a week, maybe one day. When it is used billboards, the ad can be presented during one month. On the other hand, television ads are standardized. According to the ad, it has different time. Christmas ads are on view one or two weeks. The situation is more invariable for the internet ads.In the process of advertising using the method, Co la products in general, young, care about healthy vying and vivacious people who have adopted as the main theme discussed are used of advertisements. On the other hand, when the main competitor Pepsi is investigated, it is observed its ad strategies generally are interested in celebrated stars have a report card across the globe. Finally, Pepsi has been forced to change its strategy because most of time, Pepsi products are perceived as if for rich people. So, Coca-Cola is more effective in the field of traditional advertising.As mentioned above, Pepsi preferred illustrious people and it brought millions of dollars cost. This strategy did not work, because famous people do not allure as before. Coca-Cola is affecting simple but effective people ads. It interests the culture of societies and accordingly, it acts. In recent times, as a new advertising tool, new product placement system is emerged, popular TV serial are used and feedback shows that it is successful tool to reach cu stomers. The other new ad tool is digital media. digital media supplies to translate what consumer think say and do.Clicks such as like clicks, chin-wagging clicks or hate ones are not a certain feedback. Click feedbacks cannot be measured as outcome of ad investments. But, absolutely they pose to rise o sales and revenues. At least, digital media helps to take the right steps. Ads change the company to recognize, traditional or digital. In the carbonate beverage industry, there should of all time be ad. Although digital media supplies less cost, it is salutary focus of consumers who use more tech. patsy group of Coca-Cola is wider, it covers online customers. So, the target group includes people of variety generations.The company uses mix advertising tools such as traditional, digital and outdoor advertising. All of them bring about different benefits. Digital media brings about some benefits to ad world. Every day, evolving network model and social networks help to make us ers happy. Thanks to wage at zero cost, competition and productivity are rising between businesses. New products and services are tested by online consumers with zero cost, it is directly seen problems, suggestions and requests of customers, increasing of brand awareness. These benefits make digital media become attractive.Nevertheless, traditional media is more used to get more consumers. Thanks to traditional media, Coca-Cola Company is attracter and it has prestige in its industry when compared to its rivals. Digital area is interesting for the sat two years, for Coca-Cola. After the ideal agencies are determined, they have established a strong infrastructure. For example, this year they invited to official Faceable page for announcing the list of Rock Coke. Then, they announced that the list is not tell until gathering 10 thousand members of camping. It full took a week to collect 10 thousand members.And then, the list is declared. World revenue of Coca Cola is $95 million. 8% of this revenue is used for advertisement and marketing expenditures. For thirty years, as an outsourcing, Coca-Cola & Pars McCann Erickson have worked together. For expenditures, they transcend production costs of print, radio, internet and television advertisements as of the first date the advertisements take place. The following amounts reflect the total universal amounts spent on print, radio, internet, and television advertising. plot of land choosing outsourcing agency for the ads, success of the agency is beta for the first step.Then, the agency must realize what they aim. Innovative and forward-looking characteristics are more significant, because Coca-Cola is leader firm in the carbonated beverage industry. In Turkey, Coca-Cola Company is in a good relation tit McCann Erickson for 33 years. The advertisements reach, frequency, impact and the other enlarge are arranged by Pars McCann Erickson Agency. The internet ads have shorter time, the other ads on televisi on are more often presented and they normally take time between one-half a minute and a minute. In accordance with the given instructions, the ad is emerged for the planned aim. . ingrain Turkey. It produces fresh dairy products. Whether their employees or their customers, their priority is always Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬Â. heroic or small, near or far, every one of their clients has the same meaning and same entertain for the company. Their understanding of quality and effect that constitute their group philosophy leads them to work hard, develop continuously and sustain their preciseness in production and services. Novas motto and mission are suitable to the Ã¢â¬Å"innocent milkÃ¢â¬Â principle and they are providing completely honest advertisements for their consumers and customers.In this regard, they are trying to be extremely careful. EX. and ITS approved certificates and awards can be seen all of their products to state Novas principles. Moreover, they are trying to show their products quality which is top quality, even by EX. standards. It is also named as the highest Ã¢â¬Å"premium quality. virtually 10% of their total sales are allocated for the advertising budget. About 25% of the advertising budget is allocated for the online advertising budget. When they first started, it was 1. 5%. However, they have increased it to 3% and they aim to make it 5% within the close five years.They prefer to use outsourcing for advertising. The outsourcing company is Refiner Advertising Agency. In the field of advertising characteristics, they are trying to inform consumers about their products and production techniques. Also, they are trying to change consumers with the artifices and awards they have uniquely in the industry. With their Ã¢â¬Å"mottos and jinglesÃ¢â¬Â, they are trying to take a place in their existing and potential customers minds. These techniques created unsafe positive impacts on companys sales.When introducing new products to the customers, they prefer to make advertisements more persuasive and reminder than old advertisements. impel uses five approaches. They use Ã¢â¬Å"musicalÃ¢â¬Â approach to make advertisements more reminder than traditional advertisements. They apply Ã¢â¬Å"slice of lifeÃ¢â¬Â approach to make their existing and potential customers feel themselves closer to the company and products. LifestyleÃ¢â¬Â approach is complementary to the previous approach. They are trying to apply Ã¢â¬Å"scientific evidenceÃ¢â¬Â approach and the Ã¢â¬Å"technical expertiseÃ¢â¬Â approach to advertisements as a combination.When applying this combination, they consider all certificates, company policies and customers to choose optimal advertising arrangements. Move is using a website, three main social media tools, including Faceable, Twitter and Youth, and also newspapers, magazines and television advertising. According to Move, they are using their website and social media really effectively than their rivals. F or example, Move Faceable page has Ã¢â¬Å"MarimbaÃ¢â¬Â (Hello) application. This application provides Move to reassure customers that has doubts and to increase the committedness of existing customers. It increases Novas brand recognition.Furthermore, every comment made on social media, every question asked by customers and every tweet is responded by company experts in real-time. They are also maturation small add-ones and applications for social media. As a result of these application and developments, sales increased dramatically. In this way, it is an substantial advantage in terms of marketing. Move generally prepares advertisements in the form of video and presents them to their customers with TV ND social media. Even if their TV commercials remain nearly one month on-the-air, there is no time limit for their social media advertisements.This comparison is the asked by each company is return on social media investment is whether it is executable or impossible to calculate . Too many attempts are made in this regard, but the prize of a Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬Â or the value of a Ã¢â¬Å"followerÃ¢â¬Â is not possible to calculate. In fact, social media is a marketing tool for the vast majority. Moreover, return on advertising investment is the most important criterion. If the targets, which they set before the advertising, re exceeded after advertising and advertising investment pays for itself, they stick to in advertising investment.However they do not use Just this method, they have also other criteria. (Other criteria are classified. ) Also, the return of the low cost digital media is appropriate for their budget and the main feature of digital media is it can be presented to their existing and potential customers in a short time. They try to measure the benefits with advertising investment return and brand value change. Currently, they are not homework to enter to international markets within five years. However, Move has serious plans to enter Europ ean markets. While establishing and certifying their company, they prioritize that aim.Therefore, the quality of products which Move produce is at the highest level, the Ã¢â¬Å"premium levelÃ¢â¬Â according to ITS and also EX. standards. Like every modern company, Novas main goal is to ca-ca new generation customers with the help of developing digital media and ensuring the long term sustainability. However, in doing so, they are very careful about two points. First, they try not to recess the media channels which are necessary to reach their existing customer base. Second, while maintaining their existing customer base without compromising quality and understanding, they try to impress potential customers.Move sets the new target customer base firstly. While determining new base, they try to economize their existing customer base. Then, they are doing marketing research. They select random samples to test their show up advertisements. Finally they publish their advertisements depending on the positive results which they obtain at tests. The target customer base determines their range. According to the results of their advertising research and their advertising budget, they decide the frequency with their advertising agency. They prefer minimization of positive effects, while setting the impact of their advertisements. . њliker International њliker, whose history goes back to 1944, is one of the best love brand names in Turkey. Founded and reinforced in the 20th century, the њliker brand, riding on its phenomenal momentum, was carried into the 21st century, seemingly unfathomable by time and space. With its roots in tradition but reaching toward the future, њliker is a name that continues to focus on the sociological and economic wellbeing of the community, but in parallel with that side of its existence, the organization is gaining new meaning. For the timeless њliker brand, there seems to be no end in sight.The name њ ;liker became equivalent with happy memories and the intrinsic values of trust, reality and affinity. њliker became part of the daily lives of many Turkish families and slowly but surely became entwined in the lives of consumers. Since 1944, the companys industrial, managerial, marketing and sales; advertising and customer relations activities have been based on the corporate culture established by the њliker name. This is what makes њliker more than Just a brand name. њliker International uses 10% of their advertising budget for online advertising. For these\r\n'